Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Study reveals protective role for specialized cells in intestinal and respiratory systems

08.07.2014

UC Riverside discovery of electrostatic force field could inform future development of needle-free vaccines

Ripping a page from the Star Trek script, specialized cells of the barrier that lines the inside of the intestines and airways of humans have invoked a biological version of Captain Kirk's famous command "shields up" as a first defense against invading microbes.


David Lo (in lab coat) is a distinguished professor in the UC Riverside medical school's Division of Biomedical Sciences. He is seen here with a student.

Credit: L. Duka

Research in the UCR School of Medicine laboratory of David Lo found that certain cells of the epithelium have a potentially important role in immune surveillance – creating an electrostatic repulsion field to microbial invasion.

The study is featured on the cover of the July issue of Infection and Immunity, a journal published by the American Society for Microbiology. Co-authors of the study are Kaila M. Bennett, one of Lo's graduate students, and Sharon L. Walker, a UCR professor of chemical and environmental engineering.

The finding improves scientists' understanding of the densely packed protrusions – resembling a carpet – on the surface of some cells that line the insides of the intestines and respiratory system. The protrusions, which biologists call microvilli, increase the surface area of cells and have a role in absorbing nutrients, for instance.

But Lo's laboratory has found that the microvilli actually repel negatively charged bacteria and viruses, suggesting a protective "shield" akin to the force field that envelops the Enterprise in the plots of many "Star Trek" television episodes and movies.

"This is a whole new way of looking at immune surveillance in the epithelium of the human gut and airway," said Lo, a distinguished professor in the medical school's Division of Biomedical Sciences. "If we can take advantage of this electrostatic repulsion, it could improve the diagnosis and treatment of certain bacterial infections."

A number of bacterial and viral infections can gain a foothold in the human body through adsorption via the intestines and airways, such as Salmonella and the flu.

Lo's laboratory has for more than a dozen years studied immune responses in the gut and airways, focusing particularly on cells which function as an early warning in the immune system. "We study the role of certain epithelial cells in the immune system. By understanding how the immune system is able to capture and carry viruses and bacteria across this barrier to trigger a protective immune, we may be able to design better synthetic vaccines, including needle-free vaccines," Lo said.

Lo joined UCR in 2006. In addition to his faculty position in the UCR School of Medicine Division of Biomedical Sciences, he is affiliated with the UCR Center for Disease Vector Research and the UC Global Health Institute. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Sciences (2007) and a 2005 recipient of a "Grand Challenges in Global Health" award, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health.

###

The University of California, Riverside is a doctoral research university, a living laboratory for groundbreaking exploration of issues critical to Inland Southern California, the state and communities around the world. Reflecting California's diverse culture, UCR's enrollment has exceeded 21,000 students. The campus opened a medical school in 2013 and has reached the heart of the Coachella Valley by way of the UCR Palm Desert Center. The campus has an annual statewide economic impact of more than $1 billion. A broadcast studio with fiber cable to the AT&T Hollywood hub is available for live or taped interviews. UCR also has ISDN for radio interviews. To learn more, call (951) UCR-NEWS.

Kathy Barton | Eurek Alert!

Further reports about: Medicine UCR bacteria electrostatic immune intestines microvilli protective vaccines

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Researchers observe major hand hygiene problems in operating rooms
30.03.2015 | University of Gothenburg

nachricht Electric vehicle range in 450,000 kilometer real-world test
30.03.2015 | Technische Universität Chemnitz

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Lizard activity levels can help scientists predict environmental change

Research study provides new tools to assess warming temperatures

Spring is here and ectotherms, or animals dependent on external sources to raise their body temperature, are becoming more active. Recent studies have shown...

Im Focus: Hannover Messe 2015: Saving energy with smart façades

Glass-fronted office buildings are some of the biggest energy consumers, and regulating their temperature is a big job. Now a façade element developed by Fraunhofer researchers and designers for glass fronts is to reduce energy consumption by harnessing solar thermal energy. A demonstrator version will be on display at Hannover Messe.

In Germany, buildings account for almost 40 percent of all energy usage. Heating, cooling and ventilating homes, offices and public spaces is expensive – and...

Im Focus: Nonoxide ceramics open up new perspectives for the chemical and plant engineering

Outstanding chemical, thermal and tribological properties predestine silicon carbide for the production of ceramic components of high volume. A novel method now overcomes the procedural and technical limitations of conventional design methods for the production of components with large differences in wall thickness and demanding undercuts.

Extremely hard as diamond, shrinking-free manufacturing, resistance to chemicals, wear and temperatures up to 1300 °C: Silicon carbide (SiSiC) bundles all...

Im Focus: Experiment Provides the Best Look Yet at 'Warm Dense Matter' at Cores of Giant Planets

In an experiment at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, scientists precisely measured the temperature and structure of aluminum as...

Im Focus: Energy-autonomous and wireless monitoring protects marine gearboxes

The IPH presents a solution at HANNOVER MESSE 2015 to make ship traffic more reliable while decreasing the maintenance costs at the same time. In cooperation with project partners, the research institute from Hannover, Germany, has developed a sensor system which continuously monitors the condition of the marine gearbox, thus preventing breakdowns. Special feature: the monitoring system works wirelessly and energy-autonomously. The required electrical power is generated where it is needed – directly at the sensor.

As well as cars need to be certified regularly (in Germany by the TÜV – Technical Inspection Association), ships need to be inspected – if the powertrain stops...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

World Conference On Regenerative Medicine 2015: Registration And Abstract Submission Now Open

25.03.2015 | Event News

University presidents from all over the world meet in Hamburg

19.03.2015 | Event News

10. CeBiTec Symposium zum Big Data-Problem

17.03.2015 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA covers Super Typhoon Maysak's rainfall, winds, clouds, eye

01.04.2015 | Earth Sciences

Quantum teleportation on a chip

01.04.2015 | Information Technology

Galaxy Clusters Formed as 'Fireworks'

01.04.2015 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>