The results were reported at the 35th Congress of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) in Milan, Italy.
The link between smoking and cancer has been established for decades, explained Dr Yuk Ting Ma from the Cancer Research UK Institute of Cancer Studies, Birmingham, who presented the results. Smoking is the single biggest cause of cancer in the world, and years of research have confirmed that carcinogenic substances in tobacco smoke can damage DNA.
Scientists have also suspected that smoking causes so-called epigenetic changes, such as methylation, which alter gene expression without causing changes to the actual DNA sequence.
"Until now, however, there has been no direct evidence that smoking induces DNA methylation in humans," Dr Ma said. "Cross-sectional surveys restricted to patients with cancer have revealed that aberrant methylation of several tumor suppressor genes is associated with smoking. But such surveys cannot distinguish those epigenetic changes that are a consequence of the disease process from those which are directly attributable to smoking."
In a study funded by Cancer Research UK, the British team set out to clarify the link between smoking and methylation in a cohort of 2,011 healthy young women aged 15-19 who were originally recruited as part of a study of pre-cancerous changes to cells of the cervix.
"For this particular study we have identified all the women from that cohort who had normal smears and who also tested negative for human papillomavirus throughout follow-up," Dr Ma explained. "In this subgroup of disease-free women we have then tested the cervical smears of all the women who first started to smoke following study entry for p16 methylation, and compared them to women who were never smokers."
The researchers selected this group of women to ensure there were no potential cofounding factors for the detection of p16 methylation in otherwise healthy young women.
The particular gene the researchers were studying was p16, a so-called tumor suppressor gene. When it is methylated, this gene's normal tumor-suppressing function is inactivated.
"DNA methylation is a type of epigenetic change that can result in tumor suppressor genes being inactivated," said Dr Ma. "Methylation of p16 has been frequently associated with the development of cancer in many parts of the body."
Because the women were all taking part in a study of cervical neoplasia, Dr Ma used cells from cervical smears to test for methylation of p16. Her group found that women who took up smoking during the study were more than three times as likely (odds ratio of 3.67) to acquire p16 methylation.
"Our study showed that compared with never-smokers, women who first started to smoke during follow-up had an increased risk of acquiring methylation of p16," Dr Ma said. "Our choice of study design and our study population allowed us to reveal, for the first time, the relationship between starting to smoke and the subsequent appearance of an epigenetic change."
The results provide evidence that smoking does induce DNA methylation, Dr Ma said. "The next step is now to show that women who acquire such smoking-induced methylation have an increased risk of developing malignancy."
Notes to Editors
Contact the ESMO Press Office at email@example.com to find out:How to follow press briefings remotely via toll-free dial-in
The Congress full program is available at http://www.esmo.org/events/milan-2010-congress/program.html
Media registrationOn-site registration is possible at the Press Registration Desk. You will be asked for your press card and a letter of assignment.
About the European Society for Medical Oncology
The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) is the leading European professional organization committed to advancing the specialty of medical oncology and promoting a multidisciplinary approach to cancer treatment and care.
ESMO's mission is to advance cancer care and cure through fostering and disseminating good science that leads to better medicine and determines best practice. In this way ESMO fulfils its goal to support oncology professionals in providing people with cancer with the most effective treatments available and the high-quality care they deserve.
The ESMO community is a powerful alliance of more than 6,000 committed oncology professionals from over 100 countries. As a trusted organization with 35 years of experience and over 500 expert officers, ESMO serves its members and the oncology community through: a brand of excellence in post-graduate oncology education and training; leadership in transforming evidence-based research into standards of cancer care in Europe; dedicated efforts to foster a more favorable environment for scientific research; innovative international platforms to share expertise, best practices and disseminate the most up-to-date scientific research to as wide an audience as possible.
ESMO's scientific journal, Annals of Oncology, ranks among the top clinical oncology journals worldwide. ESMO events are the meeting place in Europe for medical oncologists to update their knowledge, to network and to exchange ideas.
To find our more about our Society, please visit: www.esmo.org
Vanessa Pavinato | EurekAlert!
Smart Data Transformation – Surfing the Big Wave
02.12.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Informationstechnik FIT
Climate change could outpace EPA Lake Champlain protections
18.11.2016 | University of Vermont
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
08.12.2016 | Life Sciences
08.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy
08.12.2016 | Materials Sciences