In a study published in the October 2008 issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill report that restrained eating behaviors prior to pregnancy were associated with weight gains above the Institute of Medicine recommendations for normal, overweight and obese women, and weight gains below the recommendations for underweight women.
Concern over low birth weight and preterm birth led many to focus attention on determinants of inadequate weight gain during pregnancy. However, with the rising prevalence of obesity among women of childbearing age and the high proportion of women who are gaining in excess of recommendations during pregnancy, the paradigm has shifted to a focus on the determinants of excessive weight gain during pregnancy.
Over 1200 women participated in the study, which was designed to determine whether a history of preconception dieting practices and restrained eating were related to higher weight gains in pregnancy, and whether this differed by prepregnancy BMI status. To assess behaviors associated with restrained eating patterns such as a history of dieting, concern about eating too much food and weight fluctuations, women completed a questionnaire that focused on their preconception habits. Women who were more overweight or obese tended to be classified as restrained eaters, dieters or weight cyclers.
The Institute of Medicine suggests that women should gain 28 to 40 lbs, 25 to 35 lbs, 15 to 25 lbs and at least 15 lbs for underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese women, respectively. The study found that restrained eating behaviors were associated with not gaining within the targeted weight gains. Most importantly, the effect of restrained eating on maternal weight gain varied by pre-pregnancy weight status. Restrained eaters and dieters in the normal, overweight and obese categories tended to gain in excess of recommendations, whereas underweight women gained below the recommendations, when compared to women who did not display restrained eating behaviors.
Co-author Anna Maria Siega-Riz, PhD, RD, suggests that the information from this study “could potentially be used by dietitians and health care providers at a preconception care visit or during family planning to identify women at risk for unhealthy eating behaviors. Women who are identified, particularly those who are underweight, should be followed up for potential eating disorders. For women who are not underweight, counseling and extra support could be given on healthy eating behaviors, increasing physical activity levels, and ways to eliminate stress which may increase the consumption of foods in certain social settings or in reaction to life events.
During pregnancy it would be useful to target these women with similar nutritional and physical activity strategies in order to avoid excessive weight gain and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as caesarean sections, Macrosomia, and large-for-gestational age (LGA) as well as shorter duration of breastfeeding and higher weight retention in the postpartum period.”
Lynelle Korte | alfa
Physics of bubbles could explain language patterns
25.07.2017 | University of Portsmouth
Obstructing the ‘inner eye’
07.07.2017 | Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena
Spectrally narrow x-ray pulses may be “sharpened” by purely mechanical means. This sounds surprisingly, but a team of theoretical and experimental physicists developed and realized such a method. It is based on fast motions, precisely synchronized with the pulses, of a target interacting with the x-ray light. Thereby, photons are redistributed within the x-ray pulse to the desired spectral region.
A team of theoretical physicists from the MPI for Nuclear Physics (MPIK) in Heidelberg has developed a novel method to intensify the spectrally broad x-ray...
Physicists working with researcher Oriol Romero-Isart devised a new simple scheme to theoretically generate arbitrarily short and focused electromagnetic fields. This new tool could be used for precise sensing and in microscopy.
Microwaves, heat radiation, light and X-radiation are examples for electromagnetic waves. Many applications require to focus the electromagnetic fields to...
Strong light-matter coupling in these semiconducting tubes may hold the key to electrically pumped lasers
Light-matter quasi-particles can be generated electrically in semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Material scientists and physicists from Heidelberg University...
Fraunhofer IPA has developed a proximity sensor made from silicone and carbon nanotubes (CNT) which detects objects and determines their position. The materials and printing process used mean that the sensor is extremely flexible, economical and can be used for large surfaces. Industry and research partners can use and further develop this innovation straight away.
At first glance, the proximity sensor appears to be nothing special: a thin, elastic layer of silicone onto which black square surfaces are printed, but these...
3-D shape acquisition using water displacement as the shape sensor for the reconstruction of complex objects
A global team of computer scientists and engineers have developed an innovative technique that more completely reconstructs challenging 3D objects. An ancient...
26.07.2017 | Event News
21.07.2017 | Event News
19.07.2017 | Event News
28.07.2017 | Health and Medicine
28.07.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
28.07.2017 | Life Sciences