Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Study confirms 2 vaccine doses protect children from chickenpox

05.01.2011
Two doses of the varicella, or chickenpox, vaccine provide excellent protection in children against this highly contagious and, in some cases, severe disease. To be published in the February 1 issue of The Journal of Infectious Diseases, the findings support the two-dose vaccine regimen recommended in the United States since 2006. (Please see below for a link to the study online.)

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began recommending a single dose of varicella vaccine in children aged 1 to 13 years old in 1995. Although the incidence of varicella fell by 90 percent after introduction of the vaccine, there was a high rate of breakthrough varicella illness in immunized children and continuing outbreaks of varicella among children despite high rates of vaccination. Studies also showed that the single-dose vaccine's effectiveness was less than 90 percent. Given the evidence, CDC in 2006 began recommending a second dose of the vaccine for children 4 to 6 years old.

Although data suggest that two doses of varicella vaccine are associated with higher levels of antibody than is one dose, this study is the first to assess the clinical effectiveness of two doses of the vaccine in the general population. Eugene D. Shapiro, MD, and colleagues at Yale University and collaborators at Columbia University conducted active surveillance in an area in Connecticut and discovered 71 cases of varicella in children aged 4 or older. None of the children had received two doses of vaccine, 66 (93 percent) had received one dose, and 5 (7 percent) had received no vaccine.

The investigators then compared the effectiveness of two doses of vaccine versus one dose in a case-control study, using 140 matched controls. The effectiveness of one dose in preventing varicella was 86.0 percent, while the effectiveness of two doses was 98.3 percent. According to Dr. Shapiro, "The odds of developing varicella were 95 percent lower in children who had received two doses of the vaccine compared with those who had received only one."

The results of this study suggest that countries immunizing children with only one dose of varicella vaccine should consider changing to a two-dose regimen. But, the authors emphasized, "There should be continued monitoring of the effectiveness of two doses to assure that its high degree of effectiveness is sustained."

In an accompanying editorial, David W. Kimberlin, MD, of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, agreed with the study authors, noting that this study is the first to evaluate the effectiveness of two doses of varicella vaccine in a "real-world" setting. "The high effectiveness of 98.3 percent found in this investigation supports the programmatic change instituted four years ago," Dr. Kimberlin noted.

Fast Facts:

1) In this study, the odds of developing varicella (chickenpox) were 95 percent lower in children > 4 years of age who had received two doses of the varicella vaccine compared with those who had received only one dose.

2) Of the 71 cases of varicella noted in the study, none of the subjects had received two doses of vaccine.

3) The effectiveness of two doses of vaccine in protecting against varicella in the study population was 98.3 percent.

NOTE: The study and the accompanying editorial are available online. They are embargoed until 12:01 a.m. EST on Wednesday, Jan. 5, 2011:

"Effectiveness of 2 Doses of Varicella Vaccine in Children"
http://www.oxfordjournals.org/our_journals/jid/jiq052.pdf
"Control of Varicella Disease, Version 2.0"
http://www.oxfordjournals.org/our_journals/jid/jiq053.pdf
Founded in 1904, The Journal of Infectious Diseases is the premier publication in the Western Hemisphere for original research on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases; on the microbes that cause them; and on disorders of host immune mechanisms. Articles in JID include research results from microbiology, immunology, epidemiology, and related disciplines. It is published under the auspices of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Based in Arlington, Va., IDSA is a professional society representing more than 9,000 physicians and scientists who specialize in infectious diseases.

John Heys | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.idsociety.org

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Obstructing the ‘inner eye’
07.07.2017 | Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

nachricht Drone vs. truck deliveries: Which create less carbon pollution?
31.05.2017 | University of Washington

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: 3-D scanning with water

3-D shape acquisition using water displacement as the shape sensor for the reconstruction of complex objects

A global team of computer scientists and engineers have developed an innovative technique that more completely reconstructs challenging 3D objects. An ancient...

Im Focus: Manipulating Electron Spins Without Loss of Information

Physicists have developed a new technique that uses electrical voltages to control the electron spin on a chip. The newly-developed method provides protection from spin decay, meaning that the contained information can be maintained and transmitted over comparatively large distances, as has been demonstrated by a team from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute. The results have been published in Physical Review X.

For several years, researchers have been trying to use the spin of an electron to store and transmit information. The spin of each electron is always coupled...

Im Focus: The proton precisely weighted

What is the mass of a proton? Scientists from Germany and Japan successfully did an important step towards the most exact knowledge of this fundamental constant. By means of precision measurements on a single proton, they could improve the precision by a factor of three and also correct the existing value.

To determine the mass of a single proton still more accurate – a group of physicists led by Klaus Blaum and Sven Sturm of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear...

Im Focus: On the way to a biological alternative

A bacterial enzyme enables reactions that open up alternatives to key industrial chemical processes

The research team of Prof. Dr. Oliver Einsle at the University of Freiburg's Institute of Biochemistry has long been exploring the functioning of nitrogenase....

Im Focus: The 1 trillion tonne iceberg

Larsen C Ice Shelf rift finally breaks through

A one trillion tonne iceberg - one of the biggest ever recorded -- has calved away from the Larsen C Ice Shelf in Antarctica, after a rift in the ice,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Closing the Sustainability Circle: Protection of Food with Biobased Materials

21.07.2017 | Event News

»We are bringing Additive Manufacturing to SMEs«

19.07.2017 | Event News

The technology with a feel for feelings

12.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Ultrathin device harvests electricity from human motion

24.07.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Scientists announce the quest for high-index materials

24.07.2017 | Materials Sciences

ADIR Project: Lasers Recover Valuable Materials

24.07.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>