Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Study calculates the speed of ice formation

04.08.2015

Researchers at Princeton University have for the first time directly calculated the rate at which water crystallizes into ice in a realistic computer model of water molecules. The simulations, which were carried out on supercomputers, provide insight into the mechanism by which water transitions from a liquid to a crystalline solid.


Using a computer model to explore how water molecules connect and nucleate into ice crystals, the researchers found that two types of ice compete for dominance during nucleation: cubic ice (blue) which is less stable, and hexagonal ice (red), which is stable and forms the majority of ice on Earth. Nucleation occurs when water molecules come together to form blobs (pictured above), which grow over time (left to right). Eventually hexagonal ice wins out (not shown). The researchers found that adding new cubic features onto an existing crystalline blob gives rise to nuclei that are more spherical, and hence more stable. In contrast, adding hexagonal features tends to give rise to chains of hexagonal cages that make the nucleus less spherical, and hence less stable.

Images courtesy of Amir Haji-Akbari, Princeton University

Understanding ice formation adds to our knowledge of how cold temperatures affect both living and non-living systems, including how living cells respond to cold and how ice forms in clouds at high altitudes. A more precise knowledge of the initial steps of freezing could eventually help improve weather forecasts and climate models, as well as inform the development of better materials for seeding clouds to increase rainfall.

The researchers looked at the process by which, as the temperature drops, water molecules begin to cling to each other to form a blob of solid ice within the surrounding liquid. These blobs tend to disappear quickly after their formation. Occasionally, a large enough blob, known as a critical nucleus, emerges and is stable enough to grow rather than to melt. The process of forming such a critical nucleus is known as nucleation.

To study nucleation, the researchers used a computerized model of water that mimics the two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen found in real water. Through the computer simulations, the researchers calculated the average amount of time it takes for the first critical nucleus to form at a temperature of about 230 degrees Kelvin or minus 43 degrees Celsius, which is representative of conditions in high-altitude clouds.

They found that, for a cubic meter of pure water, the amount of time it takes for a critical nucleus to form is about one-millionth of a second. The study, conducted by Amir Haji-Akbari, a postdoctoral research associate, and Pablo Debenedetti, a professor of chemical and biological engineering, was published online this week in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

"The main significance of this work is to show that it is possible to calculate the nucleation rate for relatively accurate models of water," said Haji-Akbari.

In addition to calculating the nucleation rate, the researchers explored the origin of the two different crystalline shapes that ice can take at ambient pressure. The ice that we encounter in daily life is known as hexagonal ice. A second form, cubic ice, is less stable and can be found in high-altitude clouds. Both ices are made up of hexagonal rings, with an oxygen atom on each vertex, but the relative arrangement of the rings differs in the two structures.

"When water nucleates to form ice there is usually a combination of the cubic and hexagonal forms, but it was not well-understood why this would be the case," said Haji-Akbari. "We were able to look at how the shapes of ice blobs change during the nucleation process, and one of the main findings of our work is to explain how a less stable form of ice is favored over the more stable hexagonal ice during the initial stages of the nucleation process."

Debenedetti added, "What we found in our simulations is that before we go to hexagonal ice we tend to form cubic ice, and that was very satisfying because this has been reported in experiments." One of the strengths of the study, Debenedetti said, was the innovative method developed by Haji-Akbari to identify cubic and hexagonal forms in the computer simulation.

Computer models come in handy for studies of nucleation because conducting experiments at the precise temperatures and atmospheric conditions when water molecules nucleate is very difficult, said Debenedetti, who is Princeton's Class of 1950 Professor in Engineering and Applied Science and Dean for Research. But these calculations take huge amounts of computer time.

Haji-Akbari found a way to complete the calculation, whereas previous attempts failed to do so. The technique for modeling ice formation involves looking at computer-simulated blobs of ice, known as crystallites, as they form. Normally the technique involves looking at the crystallites after every step in the simulation, but Haji-Akbari modified the procedure such that longer intervals of time could be examined, enabling the algorithm to converge to a solution and obtain a sequence of crystallites that eventually led to the formation of a critical nucleus.

Even with the modifications, the technique took roughly 21 million computer processing unit (CPU) hours to track the behavior of 4,096 virtual water molecules in the model, which is known as TIP4P/Ice and is considered one of the most accurate molecular models of water. The calculations were carried out on several supercomputers, namely the Della and Tiger supercomputers at the Princeton Institute for Computational Science and Engineering; the Stampede supercomputer at the Texas Advanced Computing Center; the Gordon supercomputer at the San Diego Supercomputer Center; and the Blue Gene/Q supercomputer at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

Debenedetti noted that the rate of ice formation obtained in their calculations is much lower than what had been found by experiment. However, the computer calculations are extremely sensitive, meaning that small changes in certain parameters of the water model have very large effects on the calculated rate. The researchers were able to trace the discrepancy, which is 10 orders of magnitude, to aspects of the water model rather than to their method. As the modeling of water molecules improves, the researchers may be able to refine their calculations of the rate.

###

The study, "Direct calculation of ice homogenous nucleation rate for a molecular model of water," by Amir Haji-Akbari and Pablo G. Debenedetti, appeared in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Early Edition online August 3, 2015.

Media Contact

Catherine Zandonella
czandone@princeton.edu
609-258-0541

 @Princeton

http://www.princeton.edu 

Catherine Zandonella | EurekAlert!

Further reports about: clouds crystalline hexagonal ice ice formation water molecules

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht The personality factor: How to foster the sharing of research data
06.09.2017 | ZBW – Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft

nachricht Europe’s Demographic Future. Where the Regions Are Heading after a Decade of Crises
10.08.2017 | Berlin-Institut für Bevölkerung und Entwicklung

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: LaserTAB: More efficient and precise contacts thanks to human-robot collaboration

At the productronica trade fair in Munich this November, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presenting Laser-Based Tape-Automated Bonding, LaserTAB for short. The experts from Aachen will be demonstrating how new battery cells and power electronics can be micro-welded more efficiently and precisely than ever before thanks to new optics and robot support.

Fraunhofer ILT from Aachen relies on a clever combination of robotics and a laser scanner with new optics as well as process monitoring, which it has developed...

Im Focus: The pyrenoid is a carbon-fixing liquid droplet

Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.

A warming planet

Im Focus: Highly precise wiring in the Cerebral Cortex

Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.

The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...

Im Focus: Tiny lasers from a gallery of whispers

New technique promises tunable laser devices

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...

Im Focus: Ultrafast snapshots of relaxing electrons in solids

Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!

When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

“Lasers in Composites Symposium” in Aachen – from Science to Application

19.09.2017 | Event News

I-ESA 2018 – Call for Papers

12.09.2017 | Event News

EMBO at Basel Life, a new conference on current and emerging life science research

06.09.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Fraunhofer ISE Pushes World Record for Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells to 22.3 Percent

25.09.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Usher syndrome: Gene therapy restores hearing and balance

25.09.2017 | Health and Medicine

An international team of physicists a coherent amplification effect in laser excited dielectrics

25.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>