Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Changes in Sleep Architecture Increase Hunger, Eating

24.10.2012
Article is published in the American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

A new study shows that both length of time and percentage of overall sleep spent in different sleep stages are associated with decreased metabolic rate, increased hunger, and increased intake of calories (specifically from fat and carbohydrates). The findings suggest an explanation for the association between sleep problems and obesity.

Researchers from St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital and Columbia University investigated the effects of sleep architecture on hunger to determine whether specific stages of sleep, rather than simple duration, would affect changes in appetite and food desires in healthy adults.

The article is entitled “Alterations in sleep architecture in response to experimental sleep curtailment are associated with signs of positive energy balance” (http://bit.ly/S69LsW). It appears in the online edition of the American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology published by the American Physiological Society.

Methodology
Researcher Ari Shechter and colleagues designed a laboratory-based, randomized crossover study of 27 healthy adults between the ages of 30 and 45. Participants underwent two six-day periods of laboratory observation—a “habitual sleep” phase, during which they were allowed nine hours to sleep, and a “short sleep” phase, during which they were allowed four hours to sleep. Each phase was separated by four weeks to ensure full recuperation from the short sleep condition and to ensure that women were observed at the same phase of their menstrual cycle under each condition. Sleep duration and composition were assessed using polysomnographic recording. The amount of time spent in each sleep phase—stage 1, stage 2, slow wave sleep (or SWS—stage 3 and 4 combined) and REM sleep— was determined and expressed in minutes and as a percentage of total sleep time.

For the first four days in both phases, participants ate meals calibrated to meet their energy requirements for weight maintenance. On day four, participants were asked to rate their hunger and level of desire for different foods. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured in the fasted state on day five, and participants were then allowed to select their own foods for the final two days. Researchers compared participants’ sleep architecture in the short sleep and habitual sleep condition, and analyzed the relationships between their sleep architecture, RMR, food intake and appetite-satiety ratings.

Results
Shechter and colleagues found that, compared to habitual sleep length, the short sleep condition resulted in reductions in the duration and percentage of stage 2 and REM sleep and increased the percentage of total sleep time spent in SWS. Some of these changes were related to decreased RMR, increased feelings of hunger, and increased intake of calories, fat, and carbohydrate. Specifically, there was a positive association between stage 2 sleep duration and RMR, and an inverse relation between stage 2 sleep percentage and calories consumed—i.e., the less stage 2 sleep, the lower RMR and more calories consumed. There was an inverse relationship between REM sleep duration and hunger, and an inverse relationship between the amount of stage 2 sleep and desire for sweet and salty food. Reduced percentage of sleep time spent in REM sleep, as well as SWS, was also associated with greater fat and carbohydrate intake.
Importance of the Findings
The results reinforce that sleep duration is important, but show that the composition of sleep—the time and percentage of overall sleep spent in each stage— is also playing an important role in the relationship between sleep and obesity. “Any number of various factors like obstructive sleep apnea, certain drugs/medications, chronic exposure to short sleep duration, shift work, jet lag, and changes in the scheduling of the sleep episode, can affect sleep stage quantity and distribution,” said Shechter. “Our data may provide an explanation for the greater obesity prevalence observed within some of these conditions.”
Research Team
In addition to Ari Shechter and Marie-Pierre St-Onge of the New York Obesity Nutrition Research Center at St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital, the research was conducted by Majella O’Keeffe, Amy L. Roberts also of the New York Obesity Nutrition Research Center, and Gary K. Zammit of Clinilabs and the Department of Psychiatry at Columbia University’s College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City and Arindam RoyChoudhury of the Department of Biostatistics at the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University.
Funding
This study was supported by the New York Obesity Nutrition Research Center Grant P30 DK-26687, National Center for Research Resources and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, and National Institutes of Health (NIH) Grants UL1 RR-024156, R01 HL-091352 (to M.-P. St-Onge), and T32-DK-007559 (to A. Shechter).

###

NOTE TO EDITORS: The article is available online at http://bit.ly/S69LsW. For additional information, or to schedule an interview with a member of the research team, please contact Donna Krupa at dkrupa@the-aps.org, @Phyziochick, or 301.634.7209.

Physiology is the study of how molecules, cells, tissues and organs function to create health or disease. The American Physiological Society (APS; www.the-APS.org/press) has been an integral part of the discovery process for 125 years. To keep up with the science, follow @Phyziochick on Twitter.

Donna Krupa | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.the-aps.org

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht The importance of biodiversity in forests could increase due to climate change
17.11.2017 | Deutsches Zentrum für integrative Biodiversitätsforschung (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig

nachricht Win-win strategies for climate and food security
02.10.2017 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

Im Focus: Wrinkles give heat a jolt in pillared graphene

Rice University researchers test 3-D carbon nanostructures' thermal transport abilities

Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA detects solar flare pulses at Sun and Earth

17.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures

17.11.2017 | Health and Medicine

The importance of biodiversity in forests could increase due to climate change

17.11.2017 | Studies and Analyses

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>