Frequent testing and treatment of infection does not reduce the prevalence of chlamydia in urban teenage girls, according to a long term study by Indiana University School of Medicine researchers published in the January 1, 2010 issue of the Journal of Infectious Diseases.
Despite the fact they were screened every three months and treated when infected, the proportion of infected girls did not change over the course of the study. On entering the study, 10.9 percent of the young women were infected. After 18 months of participation, 10.6 percent were infected; 10.4 percent were infected at the four-year mark.
Eighty-four percent of repeated infections were reinfections. In spite of being so highly motivated that they kept diaries of their sexual encounters and interacted at least quarterly with the study staff, some of the young women had unprotected sex with either an untreated partner or a new partner and subsequent infection occurred. The researchers determined that 13 percent of repeated infections were due to failure of antibiotics to cure an earlier infection; considering all infections, antibiotic treatment was 92.1 percent effective.
"The rate of infection we found in the 365 Indianapolis girls we followed is similar to the rates reported by other researchers for girls in Denver and Baltimore, so it is likely that our important new findings on reinfection can be generalized to urban teenage girls in other cities," said Byron E. Batteiger, M.D., professor of medicine at the IU School of Medicine, an infectious disease specialist who is the first author of the study.
The researchers obtained a biological sample from as many sex partners of the study participants as possible to determine if the boys were chlamydia infected. "We were able to test 22.6 percent of all the partners that the girls named in the study. We determined that 26.2 percent of the participating boys were infected – a very high level of infection in this pool of young men to whom young women in the study were exposed," noted Dr. Batteiger.
Current national recommendations call for routine chlamydia screening of women based on age and history of sexual activity. There is no similar recommendation for screening young men.
"The high rate of reinfection we found in our study strongly suggests there may be some real limits on what we can do to control chlamydia without doing a better job of controlling chlamydia in young men," said J. Dennis Fortenberry M.D. M.S., professor of pediatrics at the IU School of Medicine, an adolescent medicine physician who is the senior author of the study.
"We also need to make sure that sexually active teens are aware of fact that unlike some other diseases, having chlamydia and being successfully treated for it does not give the individual immunity from reoccurrence," said Dr. Fortenberry, who urges physicians to repeatedly screen adolescents for the disease.
Chlamydia is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection and is associated with an increased risk of pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, tubal infertility, and increased susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus infection. Chlamydia is more common in sexually active teens than in any other age group.
In addition to Dr. Batteiger and Dr. Fortenberry, co-authors of the study are IU School of Medicine faculty members Wanzhu Tu, Ph.D.; Susan Ofner, M.S.; Barbara Van Der Pol, Ph.D.; Diane R. Stothard, Ph.D.; Donald P. Orr, M.D.; and Barry P. Katz, Ph.D. In addition to their IU affiliations, Dr. Tu is a Regenstrief Institute investigator, Dr. Orr and Dr. Katz are Regenstrief Institute affiliated scientists and Dr. Van Der Pol is with the Marion County Department of Health. Dr. Stothard, formerly with the IU School of Medicine, is presently affiliated with Eli Lilly and Company. The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health.
The IU School of Medicine is located on the Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis campus.
Cindy Fox Aisen | EurekAlert!
The personality factor: How to foster the sharing of research data
06.09.2017 | ZBW – Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
Europe’s Demographic Future. Where the Regions Are Heading after a Decade of Crises
10.08.2017 | Berlin-Institut für Bevölkerung und Entwicklung
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...
19.09.2017 | Event News
12.09.2017 | Event News
06.09.2017 | Event News
22.09.2017 | Life Sciences
22.09.2017 | Medical Engineering
22.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy