Rotavirus is a major cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children. Before the vaccine, rotavirus was responsible for 58,000 to 70,000 pediatric hospitalizations each year. Routine rotavirus vaccination of U.S. infants started in 2006 and has been very successful at reducing hospitalizations from severe infections in children under 5.
Study author Ben Lopman, PhD, and colleagues assessed whether the benefits of the rotavirus vaccination program also extended to children older than 5 years, adults, and the elderly who are not eligible for the vaccine. The researchers examined nationally-representative data from 2000 to 2008 to determine if hospital admissions for rotavirus and severe diarrhea declined among unvaccinated children and adults.
"Rotavirus-related hospital admissions decreased in all age groups—most significantly in people 5 to 24 years old who were not eligible for the rotavirus vaccine. The largest reduction was in March, the peak month for rotavirus infection," noted Dr. Lopman. Also in March, there were significant reductions in rotavirus admissions in people 25 years and older and admissions for severe diarrhea in the elderly. "We speculate that vaccinating infants curtailed rotavirus transmission in the community, resulting in fewer infections across the entire population," said Dr. Lopman. About 10,000 hospitalizations of children 5 and older were averted in 2008, amounting to about $40 million in health care savings.
"Our study showed that the burden of rotavirus—severe enough to require hospitalization—in older children and adults is larger than we were previously aware," said Dr. Lopman. "And by vaccinating infants, we can indirectly prevent this burden of disease, thereby amplifying public health and economic benefits of infant vaccination."
In an accompanying editorial, Roger I. Glass, MD, PhD, director of the Fogarty International Center at the National Institutes of Health, speculated that a similar approach could "make a big difference in our ability to prevent deaths and severe disease from rotavirus in the developing world." Each year, 600,000 children die as a result of rotavirus infection in low-income countries, including those where rotavirus occurs year-round. Further research is needed in these settings, Dr. Glass concluded, noting the benefits and challenges of introducing such a program in lower-income countries.
1. Rotavirus vaccination indirectly averted approximately 10,000 hospitalizations in 2008 in unvaccinated children aged 5 years and older in the United States, saving a total of $40 million in health care costs.
2. This study highlights the previously unrecognized burden of rotavirus infection severe enough to require hospitalization in children aged 5 years and older and adults.
3. Infants and young children play a critical role in spreading rotavirus to unvaccinated older children and adults.
NOTE: The study and accompanying editorial are available online. They are embargoed until 12:01 a.m. EDT on Tuesday, Aug. 30, 2011:Infant Rotavirus Vaccination May Provide Indirect Protection to Older Children and Adults in the United States
http://www.oxfordjournals.org/our_journals/jid/prpaper.pdfUnexpected Benefits of Rotavirus Vaccination in the United States
John Heys | EurekAlert!
New study: How does Europe become a leading player for software and IT services?
03.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI)
Reusable carbon nanotubes could be the water filter of the future, says RIT study
30.03.2017 | Rochester Institute of Technology
Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....
Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.
The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....
An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.
We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...
Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.
Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...
An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...
24.05.2017 | Event News
23.05.2017 | Event News
22.05.2017 | Event News
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy