Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers find diminished balance in those with poor vision

07.06.2013
UC Davis Health System Eye Center research has found that visually impaired individuals and those with uncorrected refractive error — those who could benefit from glasses to achieve normal vision but don't wear glasses — have a significantly greater risk of diminished balance with their eyes closed on a compliant, foam surface than individuals with normal vision.

The research, published in the June 6 issue of JAMA Ophthalmology, suggests that vision may play an important role in calibrating the vestibular system, which includes the bones and soft tissue of the inner ear, to help optimize physical balance. The work provides direction for more targeted studies on how poor vision impacts vestibular balance, and how to better develop fall prevention strategies for those with poor vision.

"We know that vision and balance are highly integrated in the brain, but we don't fully understand the relative contributions of the visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular systems in maintaining balance and preventing falls, especially among the visually impaired," said Jeffrey R. Willis, an ophthalmology resident at UC Davis Health System Eye Center and lead author of the study.

"Our research is the first large scale population study to compare objective measures of physical balance across individuals with normal vision, uncorrected refractive error, and the visually impaired, and the first to link poor vision with diminished vestibular balance," he said. "These results have important implications for improving balance and mobility in the U.S. population and preventing falls."

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, falls among older adults alone cost the U.S. health care system over $30 billion in 2010. One in three adults age 65 and older falls each year, and of those who fall, 20 percent to 30 percent suffer moderate to severe injuries that make it hard for them to get around or live independently, and increase their risk of early death.

Study methods

To objectively examine the relationship between poor vision and balance, Willis worked with the Dana Center for Preventative Ophthalmology at Johns Hopkins University and senior author Pradeep Ramulu to conduct a cross-sectional study, evaluating data from 4,590 adults aged 40 or older, who participated in the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The national survey, which aimed to assess balance in a nationally representative population, included tests of participants' ability to stand with feet together unassisted under increasing challenging conditions: standing on a firm surface with eyes open and then closed, and standing on a compliant, foam surface with eyes opened and then closed.

Foam-surface testing with eyes opened measured the effects of the visual and vestibular systems to work together to maintain postural balance, while the same test with eyes closed primarily assessed the impact of the vestibular system alone, as visual and proprioceptive inputs were minimized. Balance was graded as pass or fail, with the time-to- balance failure recorded for each of the tests. Participants failed the test when they began to fall, moved their arms or feet for stability, or needed help to maintain balance for 15 seconds while on the firm surface or for 30 seconds while on the foam surface. The researchers also gathered data on each participant's self-reported difficulty with falling during the last year.

The researchers found that participants with visual impairment and those with uncorrected refractive error had significantly higher rates of failing the eyes-closed foam-surface balance test —a proxy for vestibular balance – when compared to participants with normal vision. There was no significant difference in the rate of balance failure during balance tests with eyes opened or eyes closed on a firm surface. In addition, subjects with visual impairment, relative to those with normal vision, were more likely to self-report falling difficulties.

"Future research should focus on better understanding how poor vision may affect the vestibular-ocular reflex, and thus vestibular balance," said Willis. "Studies should also address how poor vision may lead to lower levels of physical and balance activities, as well as on how vision-related fall prevention strategies can be integrated with other fall prevention strategies to more effectively limit falls in our society."

Carole Gan | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht The Great Unknown: Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents
19.01.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung

nachricht A sudden drop in outdoor temperature increases the risk of respiratory infections
11.01.2017 | University of Gothenburg

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Traffic jam in empty space

New success for Konstanz physicists in studying the quantum vacuum

An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Sustainable Water use in Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

19.01.2017 | Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Helmholtz International Fellow Award for Sarah Amalia Teichmann

20.01.2017 | Awards Funding

An innovative high-performance material: biofibers made from green lacewing silk

20.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Ion treatments for cardiac arrhythmia — Non-invasive alternative to catheter-based surgery

20.01.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>