Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers find a way to improve memory by suppressing a molecule that links aging to Alzheimer’s disease

19.11.2014

In a new study conducted by the Sagol Department of Neurobiology at the University of Haifa and published recently in the Journal of Neuroscience, researchers report that they've found a way to improve memory by manipulating a specific molecule that is known to function poorly in old age and is closely linked to Alzheimer’s disease.

The researchers even succeeded, for the first time, in manipulating the molecule’s operations without creating any cognitive impairment.

“We know that in Alzheimer’s, this protein, known as PERK, doesn't function properly. Our success in manipulating its expression without causing any harm to the proper functioning of the brain paves the way for improving memory and perhaps even slowing the pathological development of diseases like Alzheimer’s,” said Prof. Kobi Rosenblum, who heads the lab in which the research was done.

Previous studies at the University of Haifa and other labs throughout the world had shown that the brain’s process of formulating memory is linked to the synthesis of proteins; high rates of protein production will lead to a strong memory that is retained over the long term, while a slow rate of protein production leads to weak memories that are less likely to be impressed on a person’s long-term memory and thus forgotten.

In the current study, the researchers, Dr. Hadile Ounallah-Saad and Dr. Vijendra Sharma, both of whom work in Prof. Rosenblum’s lab at the Sagol Department of Neurobiology, sought to examine the activity of a protein called elF2 alpha, a protein that’s known as the “spigot” or regulator that determines the pace of protein synthesis in the brain during memory formation.

From earlier studies the researchers knew that there are three main molecules that act on the protein and either make it work, or stop it from working. During the first stage they sought to determine the relative importance and the task of each one of the molecules that control the activity of efF2 alpha and as a result, the ability to create memories. After doing tests at the tissue and cell levels, the researchers discovered that the main molecule controlling the efF2 alpha’s activity was the PERK molecule.

“The fact that we identified the PERK as the primary controller had particular significance,” said Dr. Ounallah-Saad. “Firstly, of course, we had identified the dominant component. Secondly, from previous studies we already knew that in generative diseases like Alzheimer’s, PERK performs deficiently. Third, PERK acts on various cells, including neurons, as a monitor and controller of metabolic stress. In other words, we found a molecule that has a major impact on the process of creating and formulating memory, and which we know performs deficiently in people with Alzheimer’s disease.”

During the second stage of the study, the researchers sought to examine whether they could manipulate this molecule in rats in a way that would improve memory. To do this they used two accepted methods, one using a drug called a small-molecule inhibitor and the other making a genetic change to the brain cells using a type of virus also used in gene therapy.

After paralyzing PERK’s activity or reducing its expression through gene therapy (which was done with the help of Dr. Efrat Edry, of the University’s Center for Gene Manipulation in the Brain), the researchers measured a 30% increase in the memory of either positive or negative experiences. The rats also demonstrated improved long-term memory and enhanced behavioral plasticity, becoming better able to “forget” a bad experience. In other words, on a behavioral level it was clear that manipulating PERK by either of two methods improved memory and cognitive abilities.

When the researchers examined the tissues on a cell and molecular level, the discovered that the steps they’d taken had indeed stopped the expression of PERK, which allowed the “spigot” – the elF2 alpha protein – to perform better and increase the pace of protein synthesis. Even more, there was a clear correlation between memory function and the degree to which PERK was suppressed; the more efficiently PERK was suppressed, the better the memory function.

But the researchers faced another problem. Previous studies that had manipulated PERK in general in genetically engineered animals led to fixated behavior. “The brain operates in a most sophisticated fashion, with each action closely linked to many other actions,” said Dr. Ounallah-Saad. “In our study we succeeded in maintaining such control of the PERK that it didn't influence the retrieval of existing memories, or do anything other cognitive damage.”

“With this study we proved that we are capable of strengthening the process of protein synthesis in the brain and of creating stronger memories that last a long time,” said Prof. Rosenblum. “The moment we did this by manipulating a molecule that we know performs deficiently in people with Alzheimer’s and is linked to the aging process, we have paved the way for the possible development of drugs that can slow the progress of incurable diseases like degenerative brain conditions, Alzheimer’s chief among them.”

For further details:
Division of Communications and Media Relations | University of Haifa

Ilan +972-4-8240204

      +972-528-666404

Itai +972-4-8288722

      +972-502-42780

Omri +972-4-8240092

        +972-547-200585

Media Relations | University of Haifa
Further information:
http://www.huji.ac.il

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Multi-year study finds 'hotspots' of ammonia over world's major agricultural areas
17.03.2017 | University of Maryland

nachricht Diabetes Drug May Improve Bone Fat-induced Defects of Fracture Healing
17.03.2017 | Deutsches Institut für Ernährungsforschung Potsdam-Rehbrücke

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A Challenging European Research Project to Develop New Tiny Microscopes

The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.

To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Transport of molecular motors into cilia

28.03.2017 | Life Sciences

A novel hybrid UAV that may change the way people operate drones

28.03.2017 | Information Technology

NASA spacecraft investigate clues in radiation belts

28.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>