Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Research suggests new therapeutic approach for spinal cord injury

13.03.2012
Results reported in the American Journal of Pathology

A new study suggests that administering FTY720, an oral drug that has shown promise in trials for human multiple sclerosis, significantly improves locomotor recovery in mice with spinal cord injury (SCI). The research suggests a possible new avenue to counteract the degeneration of the spinal cord in human SCI. The study will be published in the April 2012 issue of The American Journal of Pathology.

Beyond the initial tissue damage, much of the degradation of the spinal cord in SCI is due to a cascade of secondary injuries, including neuronal and glial apoptosis, inflammation, glial scar formation, local edema and ischemia, and oxidative stress. The aim of current SCI treatment is to counteract the mechanisms of secondary injury and prevent their pathological consequences, because central nervous system (CNS) neurons have very limited capacity to self-repair and regenerate.

Researchers from the Jichi Medical University School of Medicine and the Graduate School of Medicine at the University of Tokyo had previously shown that the concentration of the lysophospholipid mediator, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), was significantly increased in the location of a contusion injury, triggering the migration of neural progenitor/stem cells to the site of the injury. They hypothesized that targeting S1P receptors may become a candidate therapy for various refractory central nervous system disorders, including SCI.

FTY720 acts as a broad S1P receptor modulator. Its efficacy in central nervous system disorders is believed to derive from immunomodulation. Researchers found that orally administering FTY720 to mice shortly after contusion SCI significantly improved motor function recovery. Importantly, they found that the therapeutic effects of FTY720 were not solely dependent on immune modulation. The administration of FTY720 induced lymphopenia, clearing lymphocytes from the blood, and reduced T-cell infiltration in the spinal cord. But it did not affect the early infiltration of neutrophils and activation of microglia, and it did not reduce plasma levels and mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the spinal cord. Tests in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice) with SCI found that FTY720 significantly improved recovery of hind limb motor function.

"These data clearly indicate the importance of immune-independent functions of FTY720 in the amelioration of functional deficits after SCI in mice," explains lead investigator Yoichi Sakata, MD, PhD, Research Division of Cell and Molecular Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine.

Dr. Sakata notes that S1P receptors exist in many types of cells and play a role in many cellular processes. "We observed that FTY720 decreased vascular permeability and astrocyte accumulation in injured spinal cord. These changes were also noted in SCID mice, suggesting they are not dependent on lymphocyte function. Increased vascular permeability can lead to destruction of the blood-brain barrier in spinal cord, and astrocyte accumulation is the main cellular component of glial scar after CNS injury. FTY720 might counteract these secondary injuries and thereby prevent their pathological consequences."

"Our data suggest that targeting S1P receptors with FTY720 is an attractive therapeutic approach for SCI," Dr. Sakata concludes. "However, further evaluation utilizing larger animals such as non-human primates will be necessary to confirm its efficacy in treating SCI. Further, strategies targeted at modulating the SIP concentration in injured CNS may lead to new therapeutic approaches towards repairing various CNS disorders."

David Sampson | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.elsevier.com

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht The importance of biodiversity in forests could increase due to climate change
17.11.2017 | Deutsches Zentrum für integrative Biodiversitätsforschung (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig

nachricht Win-win strategies for climate and food security
02.10.2017 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

Im Focus: Wrinkles give heat a jolt in pillared graphene

Rice University researchers test 3-D carbon nanostructures' thermal transport abilities

Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA detects solar flare pulses at Sun and Earth

17.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures

17.11.2017 | Health and Medicine

The importance of biodiversity in forests could increase due to climate change

17.11.2017 | Studies and Analyses

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>