Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Pregnancy may slow -- not accelerate -- progression to AIDS

21.09.2007
A new study may help put to rest fears that pregnancy accelerates progression to full-blown AIDS in women with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy. The study, published in the October 1st issue of the Journal of Infectious Diseases and now available online, revealed that pregnancy may, in fact, slow disease progression in these women.

Before the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), many women with HIV infection or AIDS were told that becoming pregnant would be unwise because there was thought to be a 25 percent risk of transmitting the virus to the child and that the effects of pregnancy on disease progression were unclear. It is now clear that the use of HAART in pregnancy can reduce the HIV transmission to the newborn to approximately 1 percent, but the effects of pregnancy on the HIV-infected woman remain unknown.

To determine the effects of pregnancy on HIV disease progression in the HAART era, Timothy R. Sterling, MD, and colleagues at Vanderbilt University performed an observational study of HIV-infected women between 1997 and 2004. Disease progression was defined as experiencing an AIDS-defining event such as Kaposi’s sarcoma, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, or Candida fungal infection of the esophagus; or death. Of the 759 women studied, 71 percent (540) were receiving HAART. Eighteen percent (139) of women studied had one or more pregnancy during this study.

Based on the results of studies conducted before HAART, researchers had expected there might be no difference in HIV disease progression between pregnant and non-pregnant women. What Sterling and colleagues found was that women who became pregnant actually had a lower risk of HIV disease progression and were healthier than women who did not become pregnant. Women experienced a lower risk of disease progression both before and after pregnancy. This may be a result of the healthier immune status of women who become pregnant and/or a beneficial interaction between pregnancy and HAART.

Although the pregnant women in the study were younger than the non-pregnant women, had higher initial CD4+ lymphocyte counts (white blood cells that are attacked by HIV), and a smaller amount of HIV RNA in their plasma, their risk of disease progression remained lower even after factoring in these differences. Nor did it matter that the pregnant women also were more likely to receive HAART and more likely to attend clinic appointments.

Additionally, women with multiple pregnancies during follow-up tended to have a lower risk of disease progression than did women with only one pregnancy. Sterling notes, “This apparent dose-response relationship supports a possible protective effect of pregnancy on disease progression. Pregnancy is associated with a complex set of immunological changes during the gestation period, which may provide additional benefit to the mother’s health.”

In an accompanying editorial, Kathryn Anastos, MD, of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine emphasized that although understanding of this complexity is not complete,

Dr. Sterling’s study gives hope that correlative studies of the immune response to pregnancy and the influence of pregnancy on HIV disease may help to provide the needed information.

Dr. Anastos suggested that this information may be of particular significance to women in resource-limited communities, who generally bear more children than do those in higher-resource communities. She noted that “women can now have greater confidence that in addition to protecting their children from [mother-to-child transmission of HIV] with HAART, their own health will not be compromised by pregnancy, which would place their children at long-term risk…the findings by Sterling and coworkers suggest that at least for HIV disease progression, the odds may be in their favor.”

Fast facts:

1) Women who became pregnant had a lower risk of HIV disease progression and were healthier than women who did not become pregnant.

2) Women with multiple pregnancies during follow-up tended to have a lower risk of disease progression than women with one pregnancy.

3) Currently, nearly all mother-to-child transmission can be prevented by the administration of appropriate HAART regimens during pregnancy and delivery, with postnatal treatment for the infant.

Steve Baragona | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.hivma.org
http://www.idsociety.org

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Drone vs. truck deliveries: Which create less carbon pollution?
31.05.2017 | University of Washington

nachricht New study: How does Europe become a leading player for software and IT services?
03.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI)

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

Im Focus: Optoelectronic Inline Measurement – Accurate to the Nanometer

Germany counts high-precision manufacturing processes among its advantages as a location. It’s not just the aerospace and automotive industries that require almost waste-free, high-precision manufacturing to provide an efficient way of testing the shape and orientation tolerances of products. Since current inline measurement technology not yet provides the required accuracy, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT is collaborating with four renowned industry partners in the INSPIRE project to develop inline sensors with a new accuracy class. Funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the project is scheduled to run until the end of 2019.

New Manufacturing Technologies for New Products

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A new technique isolates neuronal activity during memory consolidation

22.06.2017 | Life Sciences

Plant inspiration could lead to flexible electronics

22.06.2017 | Materials Sciences

A rhodium-based catalyst for making organosilicon using less precious metal

22.06.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>