As some clinical studies had already outlined, stress is one of the most important causes of relapse observed in abstinent smokers. The study has revealed, in genetically-modified animals, that there is effectively a genetic predisposition to suffer more or less sensitivity to stress, and that this circumstance is capable of significantly modifying behaviour patterns, to the extent of inducing relapse in the craving for nicotine.
The study findings are included in the project “Vulnerability to nicotine addiction” which began in late 2004 and has the support of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), part of the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH), that granted Rafael Maldonado one and a half million dollars (approximately 1,172,000 euros) to direct this ambitious project which has the participation of other European research groups, all of which are coordinated from the UPF.
Through the use of sophisticated genomic and behavioural analytical methods, the study has evaluated not only physical nicotine dependency but also affective manifestations and changes in behaviour caused by its presence in the body, such as states of anxiety, the craving to smoke or relapses after long periods of abstinence - this being one of the most innovative aspects of the study.
One of the aims of this project is to identify the neurobiological substrate underlying differences in individual vulnerability to nicotine addiction. Studies in genetically-modified mice show how nicotine affects the endogenous opiate system, the function of which in all mammals is to alleviate pain, increase positive emotions and provide pleasurable feelings. In short, the aim is to know more about the mechanisms involved in nicotine addiction that make us more prone to the habit of smoking.
Núria Pérez-Pérez | alfa
Multi-year study finds 'hotspots' of ammonia over world's major agricultural areas
17.03.2017 | University of Maryland
Diabetes Drug May Improve Bone Fat-induced Defects of Fracture Healing
17.03.2017 | Deutsches Institut für Ernährungsforschung Potsdam-Rehbrücke
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...
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