As some clinical studies had already outlined, stress is one of the most important causes of relapse observed in abstinent smokers. The study has revealed, in genetically-modified animals, that there is effectively a genetic predisposition to suffer more or less sensitivity to stress, and that this circumstance is capable of significantly modifying behaviour patterns, to the extent of inducing relapse in the craving for nicotine.
The study findings are included in the project “Vulnerability to nicotine addiction” which began in late 2004 and has the support of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), part of the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH), that granted Rafael Maldonado one and a half million dollars (approximately 1,172,000 euros) to direct this ambitious project which has the participation of other European research groups, all of which are coordinated from the UPF.
Through the use of sophisticated genomic and behavioural analytical methods, the study has evaluated not only physical nicotine dependency but also affective manifestations and changes in behaviour caused by its presence in the body, such as states of anxiety, the craving to smoke or relapses after long periods of abstinence - this being one of the most innovative aspects of the study.
One of the aims of this project is to identify the neurobiological substrate underlying differences in individual vulnerability to nicotine addiction. Studies in genetically-modified mice show how nicotine affects the endogenous opiate system, the function of which in all mammals is to alleviate pain, increase positive emotions and provide pleasurable feelings. In short, the aim is to know more about the mechanisms involved in nicotine addiction that make us more prone to the habit of smoking.
Núria Pérez-Pérez | alfa
Europe’s Demographic Future. Where the Regions Are Heading after a Decade of Crises
10.08.2017 | Berlin-Institut für Bevölkerung und Entwicklung
Scientists reveal source of human heartbeat in 3-D
07.08.2017 | University of Manchester
Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.
As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...
Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.
Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...
For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.
While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...
An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.
The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...
A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...
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