Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Monkey studies parallel WHI findings, point to importance

26.06.2007
Studies in female monkeys helped raise important questions about hormone therapy that were addressed in a Women’s Health Initiative study reported last week in the New England Journal of Medicine. The animal research, conducted at the Wake Forest University Primate Center, also suggests the role that stress can play in heart disease development and point to the need for early prevention of heart disease.

“Our research in monkeys suggests that stress can affect estrogen levels and may set the stage for heart disease later in life,” according to Jay Kaplan, Ph.D., professor of comparative medicine and director of the primate center. “It also suggests women need to start thinking about heart disease prevention before menopause. We found that the five years before menopause are when heart vessel disease begins to accelerate.”

Kaplan and Thomas Clarkson, D.V.M., have published numerous articles from their monkey research on the effects of hormone therapy on heart vessel disease. Their findings, along with research in humans, were a driving force behind the hypothesis that there is a “window of opportunity” during which hormone therapy can help prevent atherosclerosis. The theory was explored in the Women’s Health Initiative Coronary Artery Calcium Study (WHI-CAC).

WHI-CAC showed that younger postmenopausal women who take estrogen-alone hormone therapy have significantly less building of calcium plaque in their arteries compared to their peers who did not take hormone therapy. The plaque is considered a marker for future risk of atherosclerosis, the buildup of fatty deposits that can lead to heart attacks and strokes.

Clarkson began a study in 1988 funded by the National, Heart Lung and Blood Institute to study how hormone therapy affects heart disease risk in monkeys. He found that estrogen replacement administered to monkeys as soon as they were made surgically menopausal resulted in about a 70 percent inhibition in the progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis.

When treatment with estrogen or estrogen plus progestin was delayed for an equivalent of six years in women, however, there was no benefit. The work led to the hypothesis that estrogen inhibits the development of vessel disease, but may be ineffective, and even harmful, if the disease already exists.

“Clearly hormone therapy isn’t a drug for preventing or treating heart disease,” said Clarkson. “The question is whether, when hormone therapy is used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, there are benefits associated with the cardiovascular system that might offset any documented risks.”

In addition to raising this important question about hormone therapy, the animal studies also have other important health implications for women. Women have traditionally been considered immune from heart disease until after menopause, when their estrogen levels dramatically drop. But the monkey studies suggest that stress can actually reduce estrogen levels much earlier in life and hasten the development of atherosclerosis, thus increasing the postmenopausal burden of coronary disease risk.

These effects may apply to up to half of premenopausal women, Kaplan said, emphasizing the need for young women to be educated about the relationship between reproductive health and chronic disease risk.

"Our research adds to the growing body of evidence that cardiovascular health after menopause is influenced by hormone levels many years earlier," said Kaplan. "The message for women is that anything that reduces estrogen levels in young adulthood - whether it be stress or exercise and diet habits - may put women on a high-risk course for heart disease."

Clarkson said that because cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among women over age 55 – and because studies show that declines in estrogen in perimenopause can lead to its development – it is imperative to identify risk factors and promote early prevention.

“The evidence that levels of atherosclerosis present at the time of menopause are determined by premenopausal estrogen exposure is underappreciated,” he said.

Karen Richardson | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.wfubmc.edu

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Real-time feedback helps save energy and water
08.02.2017 | Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

nachricht The Great Unknown: Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents
19.01.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

New risk factors for anxiety disorders

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

MWC 2017: 5G Capital Berlin

24.02.2017 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>