Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Estrogen therapy in younger postmenopausal women linked to less plaque in arteries

21.06.2007
Experts caution that heart disease effects remain unclear

New results from a substudy of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Estrogen-Alone Trial show that younger postmenopausal women who take estrogen-alone hormone therapy have significantly less buildup of calcium plaque in their arteries compared to their peers who did not take hormone therapy. Coronary artery calcium is considered a marker for future risk of coronary artery disease.

Results of the WHI Coronary Artery Calcium Study are published in the June 21, 2007, issue of the New England Journal of Medicine. The WHI is sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health.

"These new results offer some reassurance to younger women who have had a hysterectomy and who would like to use hormone therapy on a short-term basis to ease menopausal symptoms," noted Elizabeth G. Nabel, M.D., NHLBI director. "We must emphasize, however, that these findings do not alter the current recommendations that when hormone therapy is used for menopausal symptoms, it should only be taken at the smallest dose and for the shortest time possible, and hormone therapy should never be used to prevent heart disease."

The new findings are from an ancillary study of 1064 women who were 50-59 years of age at the start of the WHI hormone therapy clinical trial. Participants were randomly assigned to either 0.625 milligrams per day of conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin™) or placebo (inactive pill). Participants took assigned medication for an average of nearly seven and one-half years. After slightly more than one year after treatment ended, researchers used computed tomography (CT scan) to measure the level of calcium plaque in the women's coronary arteries. Those who had taken estrogen were 30 to 40 percent less likely to have measurable levels of coronary artery calcium compared to those on placebo.

"Although our findings lend support to the theory that estrogen may slow early stages of plaque build-up in the coronary arteries, estrogen has complex effects and other known risks," said JoAnn Manson, M.D., chief of Preventive Medicine at Harvard's Brigham and Women's Hospital and lead author of the paper. "The results are consistent with our earlier findings that younger women treated with estrogen had a trend toward fewer heart attacks but, for an individual woman, it remains uncertain whether the benefits of estrogen would outweigh the risks. For this reason, estrogen should not be used for the express purpose of preventing cardiovascular disease, but it may be appropriate for the short-term treatment of moderate-to-severe hot flashes or night sweats among recently menopausal women."

In February 2006, WHI researchers reported that among the women in the estrogen-alone trial who were 50-59 years of age at study entry, women in the estrogen group had a non-significant trend towards lower rates of heart attacks compared to the placebo group, and significantly fewer women in the estrogen group required procedures to re-open clogged arteries. There was no suggestion of cardiovascular benefit in women who were 60 years or older.

"Heart attacks are uncommon among younger women, and the more relevant question is about long-term benefit as women grow older," noted Jacques Rossouw, M.D., chief of the NHLBI Women’s Health Initiative Branch. "Conducting a clinical trial that would start any form of hormone therapy on postmenopausal women at a younger age and follow them for decades – when they would be more likely to have heart attacks – is not feasible.

"We cannot assume that any possible short-term, cardiovascular benefit from hormone therapy to postmenopausal women in their fifties would extend into older ages if they were to continue using hormones," Rossouw cautioned. "We already know that starting hormone therapy in older women increases their risk of heart disease. And long-term hormone therapy has other risks such as strokes and blood clots, and, with the use of combination therapy, breast cancer."

The WHI is a major, 15-year research program designed to address the most frequent causes of death, disability, and poor quality of life in postmenopausal women: cardiovascular disease, cancer, and osteoporosis. The principal findings from the WHI hormone therapy trials, which studied 27,347 postmenopausal women on estrogen-alone or estrogen plus progestin, found that the overall risks of hormone therapy outweigh the benefits. Both of these trials were stopped early because of increased health risks and failure to prevent heart disease, a key question of the studies. Even though the risks for coronary heart disease were less pronounced in the estrogen alone trial than in the estrogen-plus–progestin trial, both therapies increased the risk of stroke and of blood clots.

Overall, the estrogen-alone study involved 40 clinical centers and 10,739 generally healthy postmenopausal women ages 50-79 who did not have a uterus. The clinical trial was stopped in February 2004 after approximately 7 years of follow up because of increased risk of stroke and no reduction in risk of coronary heart disease. The study also found an increased risk of blood clots.

The estrogen-plus-progestin study (conducted in postmenopausal women with a uterus) was stopped in 2002 due to an increase in breast cancer. Like estrogen-alone, combination hormone therapy was also found to increase the risk of stroke and blood clots regardless of the women's age or time since menopause. Combination therapy was also found to increase the risk of heart disease in the first few years.

All women who wish to lower their risk of heart disease should make healthy lifestyle choices, such as following a diet low in sodium, saturated fat, transfat and cholesterol; maintaining a healthy weight; engaging in regular physical activity; and not smoking. In addition, they should work with their healthcare provider to identify and manage other known risk factors such as high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and diabetes.

NHLBI Communications Office | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/whi
http://www.nih.gov
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/whi/estro_alone.htm

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht New study: How does Europe become a leading player for software and IT services?
03.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI)

nachricht Reusable carbon nanotubes could be the water filter of the future, says RIT study
30.03.2017 | Rochester Institute of Technology

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

7th International Conference on Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics in Freiburg on April 3-5, 2017

03.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Bare bones: Making bones transparent

27.04.2017 | Life Sciences

Study offers new theoretical approach to describing non-equilibrium phase transitions

27.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

From volcano's slope, NASA instrument looks sky high and to the future

27.04.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>