Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


Postmenopausal hormone therapy and coronary disease -- the truth of the matter

With each new publication of coronary artery disease (CAD) data from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) study, the inevitable reaction is “Why on earth did the WHI investigators claim in 2002–2004 that postmenopausal hormone therapy has deleterious effects on the risk for CAD, when, from the beginning, they were aware of the importance of the age factor in this clinical scenario"”.

Women in the age group of 50–59 years who participated in the estrogen-alone arm of the WHI study were asked immediately after the early cessation of the trial to become part of an ancillary study – the WHI-CACS – which looked at the magnitude of coronary calcifications measured by ultra-fast coronary CT. Coronary calcium deposits develop as part of the atherosclerosis process and correlate well with findings of coronary angiography.

The results of WHI-CACS, now published in the New England Journal of Medicine [1] are very encouraging, since women who were randomized to the estrogen arm of the WHI had significantly smaller calcification scores than their counterparts in the placebo arm. The effect was recorded for all degrees of severity, with estrogen users having a 20–30% reduction in the likelihood of being categorized as having a mild to moderate increase in calcification scores (less than 100), and a more than 50% reduction in the likelihood of being categorized as advanced cases with calcification scores above 100. This study re-affirms what was actually known for many years, based on animal data and observational studies in women. Estrogen has a wide range of well-documented beneficial metabolic and vascular effects: it reduces the pace of accumulation of atherosclerosis, and decreases the risk of coronary events, provided that treatment is started early in the menopause. In addition, the CT in the WHI-CACS was performed at a mean age of 64.8 years, 7.4 years after randomization to the WHI trial, which suggests a new “safety margin” for age and duration of estrogen therapy, as women can be reassured that estrogen therapy is cardioprotective at least until age 65.

One of the main arguments that were raised at the time of publication of the preliminary data of the WHI 5 years ago, in attempt to explain the disconcordance between the results of previous large-scale, long-term, observational studies and the WHI cardiac data, was that randomized, placebo-controlled trials are always better and suffer less bias. With randomized trials being Level I evidence and observational trials considered Level II evidence, devaluation of good observational data became state-of-the-art. The recent post-hoc analyses from WHI show that, by the end of the day, the observational studies did give valuable information, which was comparable to that obtained by the randomized trials.

Even for the issue of coronary calcifications and hormone therapy, a literature search shows that “lower grade” encouraging clinical data were there for at least 10 years. Clearly, a real long-term, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study on hormone therapy cannot be performed. The IMS therefore suggests that available long-term data from the Nurses’ Health Study and other major observational studies should be considered while making decisions on hormone therapy in clinical practice. Since most, if not all, women do not start hormone therapy at an old age, safety concerns on its possible adverse cardiac effects are actually invalid for the vast majority of hormone users. In fact, treatment seems to be associated with reduction of risk for coronary artery disease if initiated early.

Jean Wright | EurekAlert!
Further information:

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Diagnoses: When Are Several Opinions Better Than One?
19.07.2016 | Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung

nachricht High in calories and low in nutrients when adolescents share pictures of food online
07.04.2016 | University of Gothenburg

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Etching Microstructures with Lasers

Ultrafast lasers have introduced new possibilities in engraving ultrafine structures, and scientists are now also investigating how to use them to etch microstructures into thin glass. There are possible applications in analytics (lab on a chip) and especially in electronics and the consumer sector, where great interest has been shown.

This new method was born of a surprising phenomenon: irradiating glass in a particular way with an ultrafast laser has the effect of making the glass up to a...

Im Focus: Light-driven atomic rotations excite magnetic waves

Terahertz excitation of selected crystal vibrations leads to an effective magnetic field that drives coherent spin motion

Controlling functional properties by light is one of the grand goals in modern condensed matter physics and materials science. A new study now demonstrates how...

Im Focus: New 3-D wiring technique brings scalable quantum computers closer to reality

Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.

"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...

Im Focus: Scientists develop a semiconductor nanocomposite material that moves in response to light

In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.

A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...

Im Focus: Diamonds aren't forever: Sandia, Harvard team create first quantum computer bridge

By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.

"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

Agricultural Trade Developments and Potentials in Central Asia and the South Caucasus

14.10.2016 | Event News

World Health Summit – Day Three: A Call to Action

12.10.2016 | Event News

Latest News

How nanoscience will improve our health and lives in the coming years

27.10.2016 | Materials Sciences

OU-led team discovers rare, newborn tri-star system using ALMA

27.10.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

'Neighbor maps' reveal the genome's 3-D shape

27.10.2016 | Life Sciences

More VideoLinks >>>