The study, published this week in the British Journal of Criminology, suggests that, although treatment is effective in reducing offending by drug users, it can be equally effective for people who enter treatment as an alternative to imprisonment, leading to reductions of almost three quarters in the average frequency of offending.
The researchers (Alex Stevens and Neil Hunt from the European Institute of Social Services, University of Kent, and Tim McSweeney and Paul Turnbull from the Institute for Criminal Policy Research, King’s College London) studied a group of drug dependent offenders who went through Drug Treatment and Testing Orders (DTTOs) in services across London and Kent, and compared them to a group of dependent drug users who entered treatment ‘voluntarily’ at the same treatment centres.
Alex Stevens explained: ‘Our research has shown that people on DTTOs were as likely to reduce their offending and drug use as people who entered treatment ‘voluntarily’. On average, those sentenced to a DTTO reported a 71% reduction in the frequency of offending between the time of arrest and 18 months after they started treatment. The sharpest fall in offending occurred in the first six months of treatment. There were similar reductions in the frequency of drug use and in the money they spent on drugs.’
Tim McSweeney added: ‘We also discovered that offenders on DTTOs were as motivated to change as people who ‘volunteered’ for treatment. However, there were ongoing problems in the delivery of the DTTO programmes, particularly in co-ordinating the work of the courts, the probation service and treatment agencies, which limited their effectiveness. Even with these problems, it seems that the treatment provided to drug dependent offenders was effective in reducing their offending and drug use.’
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Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).
Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...
Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.
The cells of the mouth, nose and intestinal mucosa produce large quantities of a chemical called sialic acid. Many bacteria possess a special transport system...
UMD, NOAA collaboration demonstrates suitability of in-orbit datasets for weather satellite calibration
"Traffic and weather, together on the hour!" blasts your local radio station, while your smartphone knows the weather halfway across the world. A network of...
Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) are frequently used in the aeronautic and automobile industry. However, the repair of workpieces made of these composite materials is often less profitable than exchanging the part. In order to increase the lifetime of FRP parts and to make them more eco-efficient, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) and the Apodius GmbH want to combine a new measuring device for fiber layer orientation with an innovative laser-based repair process.
Defects in FRP pieces may be production or operation-related. Whether or not repair is cost-effective depends on the geometry of the defective area, the tools...
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16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering