Randolph Noelle and colleagues from Dartmouth Medical School in Lebanon, USA show that certain adjuvants can induce antigen specific memory B cells, in the absence of induction of plasma cells. This is an important fundamental immunological observation as it suggests that memory B cells can arise independently of long-lived plasma cells, which is also interesting from a vaccination perspective.
The immune system recognizes vaccine agents as foreign, destroys them, and “remembers” them. When the virulent version of an agent comes along, the immune system is thus prepared to respond. This long term immunity relies heavily upon the generation of so called B cells, which will generate antibodies that will bind to pathogens and mark them for destruction. Specifically, almost all vaccine formulations induce two types of B-cells: memory B cells and antibody producing B-cells called plasma cells.
Adjuvants, agents which modify the effect of other agents while having few, if any direct effects when given by themselves, are many times used to modify (in this case augment) the effects that a vaccine has on disease resistance. However, the reasons why certain vaccine adjuvants are more or less effective at inducing immune responses often remains unclear.
“This article provides a very exciting new insight because it seems to change the traditional textbook paradigm on relationship between plasma cells and memory B cells", said Vaclav Horejsi”, the Editor-in-Chief of the EFIS journal.
In addition to being scientifically very interesting, the discovery may have important practical consequences in vaccinology as they suggest that memory B cell can be induced during vaccination without the recipient having to mount a strong primary antibody response during immunization. “While perhaps not immediately practicable, this study will have a contribution to the rational development of adjuvants for use in vaccination”, according to immunologist James Brewer from the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow, UK in his commentary published volume 109, issue 2 of Immunology Letters (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01652478).
Floris de Hon | alfa
Europe’s Demographic Future. Where the Regions Are Heading after a Decade of Crises
10.08.2017 | Berlin-Institut für Bevölkerung und Entwicklung
Scientists reveal source of human heartbeat in 3-D
07.08.2017 | University of Manchester
Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.
As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...
Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.
Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...
For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.
While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...
An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.
The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...
A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...
16.08.2017 | Event News
04.08.2017 | Event News
26.07.2017 | Event News
18.08.2017 | Life Sciences
18.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
18.08.2017 | Materials Sciences