Chest pain is the most common initial symptom in patients diagnosed with coronary artery disease. Tests such as electrocardiography, chest radiography as well as oxygen saturation monitoring and cardiac monitoring are non-invasive and useful in diagnosing the disease. The study found that these tests are applied differently based on patients' race, gender and insurance.
Researchers drew on data compiled by the National Hospital Ambulatory Health Care Survey of Emergency Departments (NHAMCS-ED), from 1995 to 2000, for patients 30 years old or older presenting with chest pain. The retrospective study used a sample of 7,068 patients which corresponded to 32 million visits nationally throughout the six-year period.
They found that the rate of visits to emergency departments by patients presenting with chest pain increased in the six-year period, and that race, gender and insurance differences were factors in the type of care patients received at emergency departments.
Overall, African American males were 25 to 30 percent less likely to receive any of the tests than non-African American males.
Use of all forms of diagnostic testing and monitoring, with the exception of oxygen saturation monitoring, decreased among male African American patients over the six-year period. Electrocardiography decreased more than 16 percent among male African American patients, and they were 26 percent less likely to be placed on cardiac monitoring in 2000 than they were in 1995.
Gender was also an issue in determining what tests are administered for patients presenting with chest pain. African American women were approximately five percent less likely to have electrocardiography tests than non-African American men.
African American women were also 17 percent less likely to undergo cardiac monitoring, 14 percent less likely to have oxygen saturation monitoring, and six percent less likely to have chest radiography tests than non-African American men. Similarly, the rate of testing was lower for non-African American women than it was for non-African American men.
Insurance type was also proven to have a significant role in the administration of tests. Patients covered by forms of insurance other than commercial insurance were approximately 13 percent less likely to undergo electrocardiography. Additionally, patients covered by these forms of insurance were almost 21 percent less likely to be placed on cardiac monitoring, 23 percent less likely to have oxygen saturation measured, and more than 13 percent less likely to receive chest radiography than patients covered by commercial insurance.
The study also found that approximately 82 percent of commercially insured non-African American men received electrocardiography testing when presenting with chest pain in 2000. This is nearly a 27 percent higher proportion than uninsured African American men, and a 31 percent higher proportion than African American men covered by non-commercial forms of insurance.
Toranj Marphetia | EurekAlert!
Europe’s Demographic Future. Where the Regions Are Heading after a Decade of Crises
10.08.2017 | Berlin-Institut für Bevölkerung und Entwicklung
Scientists reveal source of human heartbeat in 3-D
07.08.2017 | University of Manchester
Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.
As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...
Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.
Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...
For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.
While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...
An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.
The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...
A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...
16.08.2017 | Event News
04.08.2017 | Event News
26.07.2017 | Event News
21.08.2017 | Materials Sciences
21.08.2017 | Health and Medicine
21.08.2017 | Materials Sciences