The study analysed patterns of media use in Norway, Germany and Austria, on the basis of a sample population of 24,468 persons aged between 12 and 74. The data were taken from the Eurostat study “Community survey of ICT usage in households and by individuals” which was carried out in late 2005. The Norwegian part of the survey was carried out by Statistics Norway.
According to researchers Jan Heim and Petter Bae Brandtzaeg, who carried out the analyses, different groups of the population have their own ways of using, or not using, ICT. They identified four typical patterns of use among major population groups in all the countries surveyed, and found that there was one pattern of use unique to Norway – that of advanced users.Four patterns of users
2. Average users make up the largest group of ICT users, using their PCs and the Internet only occasionally. The have a relatively low level of ICT skills and no other special features (Austria 28%, Germany 51%, Norway 27%).
3. Instrumental users employ ICT primarily for practical purposes and to acquire information such as public-sector Internet services. They have a relatively high level of ICT skills and a high level of education (Austria 15%, Germany 5%, Norway 23%).
4. Entertainment users devote most of their ICT time to entertainment, such as game-playing and watching videos or TV on the Internet. They have relatively advanced ICT skills. They are relatively young (less obviously so in Germany) and this group includes more men than women. Members have a wide range of educational and income levels, since this group includes many students (Austria 9%, Germany 5%, Norway 14%).
5. Advanced users make up a group that is only evident in Norway. They utilise ICT in many connections and for a range of different purposes. There is a high rate of advanced usage such as programming, web-site design, etc. They use the Internet on a daily basis and are relatively young, with an average age of 32 as against 45 in the remainder of the sample. Most of them are men (80%) and most (87%) have broadband access (sample average 45%). They live in cities and have a wide range of educational levels.
The conclusion is that there are large differences in patterns of ICT use between Austria, Germany and Norway. In absolute terms, the largest group comprises non-users, a group that was most numerous in Austria (47%). The average users make up the largest group of ICT users, if we look at all three countries together. The highest proportion of average uses is in Germany (51%). The smallest group of all was the advanced users, who were only evident in Norway (11%).
Most advanced users were thus to be found in Norway (though we must remember that the other Scandinavian countries were not analysed), and they tended to be younger, with a high rate of access to broadband services. But the greatest differences in ICT usage were also found in Norway, where there exists a wide digital divide between non-users and advanced users.
The report also surveyed existing international studies of the growing use of user-generated content and social network applications or “online communities”. It found that young people who are major Internet users are most likely to be active participants and content producers. According to Petter Bae Brandtzaeg, we can now glimpse the beginning of a new digital divide; i.e. between those who merely consume media and those who also produce content. Brandtzaeg claims that there now exist various levels of digital divides:
Digital consumer divides; i.e. differences in access to, and ability to consume media content.
Digital production divides; i.e. differences in access to, and ability to produce media content.
The report is the first of several to be produced by the CITIZEN MEDIA project (IP – FP6 – 2006-2009), which is part of the EU’s 6th Framework Programme. The aim of the project was to develop new systems that will enable non-professional users to consume, create and publish audiovisual media content on a range of platforms. SINTEF’s role is to generate knowledge about usage and user needs, and to define these needs in the world of new media. SINTEF also aims to develop a theory of how patterns of media use develop over time.
The project comprises a total of 16 partners from several EU member countries, and is coordinated by Alcatel Bell NV. More details of the project are available at www.ist-citizenmedia.org.
New study: How does Europe become a leading player for software and IT services?
03.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI)
Reusable carbon nanotubes could be the water filter of the future, says RIT study
30.03.2017 | Rochester Institute of Technology
More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...
Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
28.04.2017 | Event News
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering
28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences
28.04.2017 | Life Sciences