Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

USGS examines environmental impacts of aircraft de-icers

12.01.2007
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been examining the relative toxicity to aquatic life from a variety of formulations used to remove or prevent dangerous ice buildup on aircraft.

A recent study has confirmed that proprietary additives are responsible for the observed toxicity. This USGS study, published in the journal Environmental Science & Technology, compared nine different formulations. Neither the primary ingredients (ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) nor the known additives accounted for all observed toxicity of these formulations.

Additives are included to improve a formulation's effectiveness. Those that are proprietary have compositions known only to the manufacturer. Although research conducted in the mid 1990's revealed the toxicity of proprietary additives, this study compared numerous de-icers and anti-icers and confirmed that most still have toxic additives that have not been publicly identified.

"This study suggests that some de-icers -- products that remove snow and ice buildup – that are currently in use are safer for the environment than the de-icers used in the 1990's," said Steve Corsi, USGS scientist and lead author of this study. "But the toxicity profiles of anti-icers -- products that prevent ice and snow buildup -- have not changed significantly."

For this study, completed in cooperation with Milwaukee's General Mitchell International Airport and the Dallas-Fort Worth Airport, formulations were collected directly from storage tanks and de-icing vehicles and tested on minnows, water fleas, green alga, and marine bacterium. These organisms are near the bottom of the food chain and are common benchmark indicators of environmental health. The sensitivity of tested organisms varied according to a number of factors including formulation of the product. Concentrations of deicer and anti-icer components previously observed in airport effluents have, at times, exceeded the toxicity levels shown in results of this study.

Study results indicated that anti-icers are more toxic than de-icers due to the larger percent of additives contained in anti-icers. The package of additives used in these fluids varies between manufacturer and type of formulation. In addition, some additives are of special concern not only due to the toxicity of the additive, but because they can become increasingly toxic as they degrade in the environment.

"Airports in cold climates throughout the world use de-icers or anti-icers nearly every day during the winter, and those in warmer climates also must use them periodically. The most intensive de-icing and anti-icing application often occurs during extreme weather conditions including periods of snow, freezing rain, and high winds. This occasionally makes it difficult to contain the spent fluids and they are released to the environment. While they are a necessity for aviation safety, these products are potential environmental contaminants," said Corsi.

The U.S. EPA acknowledges that there is environmental impact from aircraft de-icers and anti-icers and is studying possible guidelines in consideration of national regulation to limit its runoff from airports. Many airports have implemented measures to reduce runoff of chemicals into the environment, so the fate of these substances varies depending on the individual airport and weather conditions during their use.

"Certainly, the primary concern of an airline passenger is a safe arrival at their destination," said Corsi. "Airports have improved spent de-icer collection systems and airlines are considering application methods to reduce the amount of fluids applied. Ultimately, it will take a combined effort from fluid manufacturers, airlines, and airports to continue reducing the environmental impact of aircraft de-icers and anti-icers while maintaining the highest level of safety."

The additives are used in de-icers and anti-icers to facilitate product application, ensure that the product will adhere to aircraft wings and fuselage, and enhance its overall effectiveness.

Steven Corsi | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.usgs.gov

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Europe’s Demographic Future. Where the Regions Are Heading after a Decade of Crises
10.08.2017 | Berlin-Institut für Bevölkerung und Entwicklung

nachricht Scientists reveal source of human heartbeat in 3-D
07.08.2017 | University of Manchester

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A Map of the Cell’s Power Station

18.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Engineering team images tiny quasicrystals as they form

18.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Researchers printed graphene-like materials with inkjet

18.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>