The study was aimed to examine the association between separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and mental disorders in a community sample and to evaluate whether separation anxiety is specifically related to panic disorder with and without agoraphobia.
The data come from a 4-year, prospective longitudinal study of a representative cohort of adolescents and young adults aged 14-24 years at baseline in Munich, Germany.
The present analyses are based on a subsample of the younger cohort that completed baseline and two follow-up investigations (n = 1,090). DSM-IV diagnoses were made using the Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Cox regressions with time-dependent covariates were used to examine whether prior SAD is associated with an increased risk for subsequent mental disorders. Results: Participants meeting DSM-IV criteria for SAD were at an increased risk of developing subsequent panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDAG) (HR = 18.1, 95% CI = 5.6-58.7), specific phobia (HR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.001-7.6), generalized anxiety disorder (HR = 9.4, 95% CI = 1.8-48.7), obsessive-compulsive disorder (HR = 10.7, 95% CI = 1.7-66.1), bipolar disorder (HR = 7.7, 95% CI = 2.8-20.8), pain disorder (HR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.3-9.1), and alcohol dependence (HR = 4.7, 95% CI = 1.7-12.4).
Increased hazard rates for PDAG (HR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.4-12.1), bipolar disorder type II (HR = 8.1, 95% CI = 2.3-27.4), pain disorder (HR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.01-3.5), and alcohol dependence (HR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.1-4.) were also found for subjects fulfilling subthreshold SAD. Although revealing a strong association between SAD and PDAG, our results argue against a specific SAD-PDAG relationship. PDAG was neither a specific outcome nor a complete mediator variable of SAD.
Tanja Brückl | alfa
Amputees can learn to control a robotic arm with their minds
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Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.
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The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.
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With innovative experiments, researchers at the Helmholtz-Zentrums Geesthacht and the Technical University Hamburg unravel why tiny metallic structures are extremely strong
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An interdisciplinary group of researchers interfaced individual bacteria with a computer to build a hybrid bio-digital circuit - Study published in Nature Communications
Scientists at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) have managed to control the behavior of individual bacteria by connecting them to a...
Physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (run jointly by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics) have developed an attosecond electron microscope that allows them to visualize the dispersion of light in time and space, and observe the motions of electrons in atoms.
The most basic of all physical interactions in nature is that between light and matter. This interaction takes place in attosecond times (i.e. billionths of a...
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