"These studies proved for the first time that hyponatremia, which is associated with poor outcomes, can be treated effectively with an oral drug that has no significant side effects," said Mihai Gheorghiade, M.D., professor of medicine at Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine, who presented the results of the studies at the AHA meeting.
Hyponatremia is a relatively common electrolyte disorder. It affects a wide spectrum of patients including those with liver problems, heart failure and the elderly. It also may affect marathon runners.
Occurring in 15 to 20 percent of hospitalized patients with heart failure, hyponatremia is the opposite of dehydration. Known as "water intoxication," the condition occurs when serum sodium concentration in the blood falls to dangerously low levels causing cells in the body to stop excreting water. Normal serum sodium levels are between 135 and 145 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Hyponatremia occurs when serum concentration drops to less than 135 mmol/L. In severe cases, it can lead to cerebral edema and even death.
Yet current therapies for hyponatremia are often ineffective and poorly tolerated. The two SALT studies will be published in the November 16 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine and presented at the AHA meeting offer promising information.
Robert Schrier, M.D., professor of medicine of the University of Colorado, Denver, and Gheorghiade and their colleagues at other institutions, found that tolvaptan, a V2-receptor antagonist developed by Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. and Otsuka Maryland Research Institute, Inc., began to improve patients' serum sodium levels almost immediately.
"This easy-to-administer oral drug begins to normalize serum sodium within hours. The normalization is sustained during long-term therapy," Dr. Gheorghiade said. "It is also important to note that tolvaptan was associated with an improvement in mental performance. This is important since cognition can decrease as a result of low serum sodium."
The SALT-1 and SALT-2 studies (Sodium Assessment with Increasing Levels of Tolvaptan) looked at 443 patients in the U.S. and several international sites. During the trial, about half the patients were put on the tolvaptan regimen, the other half on placebo. In both studies, patients assigned to tolvaptan had higher serum sodium concentrations at day 4 and day 30 than those in the placebo group. During the week after discontinuing the tolvaptan, hyponatremia recurred in patients.
SALT-1 and SALT-2 were identical prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled efficacy studies. SALT-1 was conducted at 42 sites in the U.S., SALT-2 at 50 international sites.
Marla Paul | EurekAlert!
Smart Data Transformation – Surfing the Big Wave
02.12.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Informationstechnik FIT
Climate change could outpace EPA Lake Champlain protections
18.11.2016 | University of Vermont
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water
In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
05.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering
05.12.2016 | Materials Sciences
05.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering