Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

A 20-year study finds no association between low-carb diets and risk of coronary heart disease

10.11.2006
Low carb-diets focusing on vegetable-based sources of fat and protein may reduce risk of CHD

Advocates of low-carbohydrate diets, such as the popular Atkins diet, claim that those diets may help prevent obesity and coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the long-term safety of those diets has been debated, particularly because they encourage the consumption of animal products, which are high in saturated fats and cholesterol and could potentially increase the risk of CHD. Prevailing dietary recommendations have advocated a contrary approach, recommending diets that are low in fat and high in carbohydrates as the best way to manage weight and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

In the first study to look at the long-term effects of low-carbohydrate diets, researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) found no evidence of an association between low-carb diets and an increased risk of CHD in women. Their findings did suggest, however, an association between low-carb diets high in vegetable sources of fat and protein and a low risk of CHD.

"This study suggests that neither a low-fat dietary pattern nor a typical low-carbohydrate dietary pattern is ideal with regards to risk of CHD; both have similar risks. However, if a diet moderately lower in carbohydrates is followed, with a focus on vegetable sources of fat and protein, there may be a benefit for heart disease," said Tom Halton, a former doctoral student in the Department of Nutrition at HSPH.

The study appears in the November 9, 2006, issue of The New England Journal of Medicine.

The researchers, Halton, senior author Frank Hu, associate professor of nutrition and epidemiology at HSPH, and colleagues, looked at data collected over a 20-year period from 82,802 women in the Nurses' Health Study, a long-term study that began in 1976. Study participants were divided into 10 categories according to their overall diet score, which was measured by calculating fat, protein and carbohydrate intake as a percentage of energy. The scores ranged from 0 (the lowest fat and protein intake and highest carbohydrate intake) to 30 (the highest fat and protein intake and lowest carbohydrate intake). A higher score meant a person followed a low-carbohydrate diet more closely; that score was called the "low-carbohydrate-diet score."

Halton and his colleagues also created two additional low-carbohydrate-diet scores. The first calculated percentages of energy from carbohydrate, animal protein and animal fat. The second calculated percentages of energy from carbohydrate, vegetable protein and vegetable fat.

The researchers documented 1,994 cases of coronary heart disease over the study period.

The results showed that a low-carbohydrate score was not associated with risk of CHD in women. There was no evidence that the relationship was modified as a result of physical activity levels, body-mass index, or the presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, or hypercholesterolemia.

Total amounts of fat or carbohydrate did not appear to have an appreciable relationship with risk of CHD. However, types of fat and carbohydrates do make a difference. Vegetable fat was associated a lower risk of risk of CHD, whereas higher dietary glycemic load (reflecting the amount of refined carbohydrates that can rapidly elevate blood sugar levels)--typical of a high-carb diet--was strongly associated with increased risk. The authors found that, when vegetable sources of fat and protein were chosen instead of animal sources, the low-carbohydrate-diet score was associated with a 30% lower risk of CHD.

"This study doesn't mean that you should load your plate with steak and bacon," said Hu. "One likely explanation that we did not see increased risk of CHD with low-carbohydrate diets is that the adverse effects of animal products might be counterbalanced by reducing refined carbohydrates. The quality of fat and carbohydrate is more important than quantity. A heart-healthy diet should embrace healthy types of fat and carbohydrates."

Todd Datz | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.hsph.harvard.edu

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht New study: How does Europe become a leading player for software and IT services?
03.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI)

nachricht Reusable carbon nanotubes could be the water filter of the future, says RIT study
30.03.2017 | Rochester Institute of Technology

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

Im Focus: Quantum-physical Model System

Computer-assisted methods aid Heidelberg physicists in reproducing experiment with ultracold atoms

Two researchers at Heidelberg University have developed a model system that enables a better understanding of the processes in a quantum-physical experiment...

Im Focus: Glacier bacteria’s contribution to carbon cycling

Glaciers might seem rather inhospitable environments. However, they are home to a diverse and vibrant microbial community. It’s becoming increasingly clear that they play a bigger role in the carbon cycle than previously thought.

A new study, now published in the journal Nature Geoscience, shows how microbial communities in melting glaciers contribute to the Earth’s carbon cycle, a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

7th International Conference on Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics in Freiburg on April 3-5, 2017

03.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New quantum liquid crystals may play role in future of computers

21.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A promising target for kidney fibrosis

21.04.2017 | Health and Medicine

Light rays from a supernova bent by the curvature of space-time around a galaxy

21.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>