Two thousand new employees in a municipality were asked: "Do you know anyone in this line of work?" The various occupations were ranked in accordance with a generally accepted international scale that measures the value of the social network, or the social capital. The social capital is of greater value if it includes individuals in key positions.
The study showed that those who had a more social capital also had a higher salary and more stable employment conditions than those with less social capital. Or, to put it bluntly: those whose friends primarily make pizzas and drive taxis have less of a chance of getting a good job than those who hang around with CEOs and lawyers.
In his dissertation Unequal Opportunities, Alireza Behtoui carried out several studies that show the correlations between formal education, place of birth, social capital, and the chances of getting a good job.
One clear finding is that place of birth, especially for non-European immigrants, has a considerably greater impact on what type of job people get than formal education does, regardless of whether the education was largely acquired in Sweden.
Alireza Behtoui also studied the importance of formal vs. informal channels when people get jobs. Nearly half of all jobs in Sweden are arranged via non-official or informal channels. Alireza Behtoui demonstrates that the chances of getting a well-paid and stable job via informal channels are much better for native Swedes than for those born abroad. This is especially true for men.
"For women, the differences in pay are substantially smaller," he says, "whether they got their job via informal or formal channels and whether they were born in Sweden or abroad."
A third study focused on how things had turned out for young people eight years after they graduated from high school. These young people were divided into two groups: those with foreign-born parents and those with Swedish-born parents. Otherwise, their backgrounds did not differ: they themselves were all born in Sweden, had all gone through the same school system, and were all of the same age. It turns out that those young people who had foreign-born parents were considerably less successful, especially if their parents were from outside Europe.
In summary, his studies demonstrate something stated by the French philosopher Bourdieu, namely, that society's hierarchies will be reproduced, a conclusion that may appear to be rather depressing.
"Not in the least," says Alireza Behtoui. "This type of study actually fortifies those who are in the weaker groups, because it shows that this is not their fault as individuals, but rather a matter of structural forces."
Alireza Behtoui can be reached at cell phone: +46 730-238911; phone: +46 11-218921 or +46 8-6242513; e-mail: email@example.com.
Smart Data Transformation – Surfing the Big Wave
02.12.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Informationstechnik FIT
Climate change could outpace EPA Lake Champlain protections
18.11.2016 | University of Vermont
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water
In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
06.12.2016 | Health and Medicine
06.12.2016 | Life Sciences
05.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering