Researchers from 14 institutions across the country today announced the results of the first genome-wide linkage study of prostate cancer in African Americans. Using genetic markers, researchers identified several regions of the human genome that likely contain genes that, when altered, increase the risk of developing prostate cancer.
The study was conceived, implemented and executed primarily by African American investigators. Published in the journal, The Prostate, the AAHPC is a milestone in years of research designed to identify genetic risk factors for prostate cancer and to help determine if heredity plays a role in the disparity in prostate cancer rates seen among African American men.
The African American Hereditary Prostate Cancer Study Network (AAHPC) recruited 77 African American extended families, which encompassed a total of 418 men with prostate cancer, to participate in this study. All of the families studied had at least four men who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer. Using genetic markers, researchers were able to map several important regions of the human genome that likely contain genes that, when mutated, predispose these men to developing prostate cancer.
"We now must sift through millions of bases of genome sequence to identify the proverbial 'needle in the haystack'," said John Carpten, PhD, senior author and director of TGen's Integrated Cancer Genomics Division. "The discovery of these genes will hopefully lead to new and improved modes of diagnosis and treatment for some men with prostate cancer. This work speaks to our committed efforts to help reduce the disparity in prostate cancer rates seen among African American men."
According to the National Cancer Institute, the incidence of prostate cancer among African American men is 277 per 100,000 compared to 168 per 100,000 for white men. The annual death rate from prostate cancer is 73 per 100,000 for African American men compared 30 per 100,000 for white men. This means that the incidence of prostate cancer is about two times higher in African American men who are three times more likely to die from this disease. Family history is the most significant risk factor known for prostate cancer among all men, including African Americans.
"We hope today's findings--and the discoveries we expect to make in future years--will inspire the worldwide research community to view this study as a model for many other genetic studies of common diseases," said Francis S. Collins, MD, PhD, director of the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), which is part of the National Institutes of Health. "Not only does this study represent one of the most impressive collections of prostate cancer families from any ethnic group, it demonstrates the importance of setting up a network of principal investigators who are close to the community under study."
The paper's first author, Agnes B. Baffoe-Bonnie, MD, MPH, PhD, who is an associate member at the Population Science Division at the Fox Chase Cancer Center (FCCC) in Philadelphia, said these findings greatly add to our understanding of hereditary prostate cancer in African Americans. "I commend the many families who took the time to participate in this important research and praise their commitment to advancing medical knowledge. These important findings will be applied to prevention and treatment strategies," Dr. Baffoe-Bonnie said.
AAHPC is the largest study to date that focuses on prostate cancer in African American families. The families studied came from Chicago, Detroit, Houston, New York, Washington, D.C., Atlanta and South Carolina.
"Since this disease is so important in this population, this is a critical study in terms of our ability to understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for the disproportionate risk observed in African American men for both diagnosis of and mortality from prostate cancer," said William B. Isaacs, PhD, of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, who is head of the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics. "The mapping information provided by these researchers will provide essential information necessary for the ultimate identification of the genes involved, and hopefully for mechanistically based efforts to address this disparity."
The personality factor: How to foster the sharing of research data
06.09.2017 | ZBW – Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
Europe’s Demographic Future. Where the Regions Are Heading after a Decade of Crises
10.08.2017 | Berlin-Institut für Bevölkerung und Entwicklung
At the productronica trade fair in Munich this November, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presenting Laser-Based Tape-Automated Bonding, LaserTAB for short. The experts from Aachen will be demonstrating how new battery cells and power electronics can be micro-welded more efficiently and precisely than ever before thanks to new optics and robot support.
Fraunhofer ILT from Aachen relies on a clever combination of robotics and a laser scanner with new optics as well as process monitoring, which it has developed...
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
19.09.2017 | Event News
12.09.2017 | Event News
06.09.2017 | Event News
25.09.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
25.09.2017 | Health and Medicine
25.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy