This year, more than 213,000 American women will learn they have breast cancer. Many women with early stage cancer prefer to have a lumpectomy, where only the cancerous lump is surgically removed, followed by radiation therapy and possibly chemotherapy. With a lumpectomy, the surgeon removes the tumor along with some healthy, non-cancerous tissue nearby. Doctors then examine it under a microscope. If the outside of the tumor, or margin, is free of cancer, it's considered to be a negative margin. If the outside of the tumor has cancer cells present, it's considered a positive margin. When it's unclear, or a very small distance, doctors call it a close margin. Women with a positive or close margin often require more surgery to make sure all the cancer is removed. This surgery is called a re-excision. Most patients with close or positive margins would be advised to undergo re-excision.
In this study conducted at Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia, doctors divided 1,044 patients with stage I-II breast cancer with close or positive margins into three groups. Group 1 included 199 patients who did not have additional surgery, group 2 had 546 patients who had additional surgery proving they were free from cancer and group 3 included 299 patients who had additional surgery and showed evidence of additional cancer. All patients received radiation therapy.
After 10 years, the number of local recurrences was the same for women who had re-excision and for women who did not have re-excision (group 1 versus groups 2 and 3 together). However, the result of the re-excision helped predict whether women would have their cancer return. Women with no residual disease at the time of re-excision (group 2) had a local control of 95 percent, while women found to have residual disease in the breast (group 3) had a local control of 91 percent.
"This study helps to clarify the role of a re-excision for a close or positive margin in women undergoing breast-conserving therapy for early-stage breast cancer," said Derek Chism, M.D., lead author of the study and a radiation oncologist now practicing at North Shore Medical Center in Peabody, Mass.
The personality factor: How to foster the sharing of research data
06.09.2017 | ZBW – Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
Europe’s Demographic Future. Where the Regions Are Heading after a Decade of Crises
10.08.2017 | Berlin-Institut für Bevölkerung und Entwicklung
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...
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22.09.2017 | Life Sciences
22.09.2017 | Medical Engineering
22.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy