Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Computer card game detects cognitive changes

20.07.2006
OHSU scientists say FreeCell can be adapted to spot early signs of dementia

A popular, computer-based card game is helping Oregon Health & Science University researchers monitor cognitive changes in the elderly, a new study shows.

Scientists with the OHSU Oregon Center for Aging & Technology, or ORCATECH, found that a Solitaire-like game called FreeCell, when adapted with cognitive performance assessment algorithms, may be able to distinguish between persons with memory problems and cognitively healthy seniors.

People with mild cognitive impairment are at high risk of developing dementia, which is most commonly caused by Alzheimer's disease. The discovery could help doctors plan early treatment strategies by detecting subtle cognitive changes over time in the natural setting of an elder's home.

"We discovered that we can take an existing computer game that people already have found enjoyable and extract cognitive assessment measures from it," said ORCATECH investigator Holly Jimison, Ph.D., associate professor of medical informatics and clinical epidemiology, OHSU School of Medicine, and the study's lead author.

The study results are being presented today during a poster session at the 10th International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders in Madrid.

In FreeCell, players are dealt 52 cards face up in eight columns, with four columns having seven cards and the others having six. The object is to move all the cards into four single-card free "cells" in four suit piles stacked from lowest to highest rank.

"It requires significant planning to play well, and planning is one measure that neuropsychologists attempt to test in clinical situations," Jimison said. "We're trying to replicate that, and we've been able to show that we can, at least in early studies with small numbers of people, show distinctions between cognitively healthy elders and those with even mild cognitive impairment."

Jimison and study co-author Misha Pavel, Ph.D., professor of biomedical engineering and computer science and electrical engineering at OHSU's OGI School of Science & Engineering, studied nine people with an average age of 80. All were regular computer users who played the FreeCell game frequently over a six-month period. Each participant was given a cognition score based on a brief battery of tests, and three were found to have mild cognitive impairment.

To measure cognitive performance, researchers compared each user's play efficiency to a game "solver" within the program that checks card layouts throughout a game and calculates the minimal number of moves to complete it. The solver is a "dynamic algorithm that is solving the game at every moment in time, and it knows the minimal number of steps you would need to complete it," Jimison said. "We compare this 'optimal slope' to how the individual users are doing."

The FreeCell study laid the groundwork for follow-up research, funded by the National Institute of Standards and Technology's Advanced Technology Program, or NIST ATP, examining games with "dynamic adaptability," a system that keeps games fun and challenging, but still able to simultaneously collect data. For example, scientists can program the FreeCell game to automatically adjust difficulty with each new card layout based on the user's performance on the previous game, and users also can receive hints, if they choose, along the way.

"In general, we're trying to keep people at a 75 percent win rate," said Jimison, who also serves as senior research scientist for Portland-based computer game developer and ORCATECH partner Spry Learning Co., which received the NIST ATP grant and helped adapt and test the FreeCell game. "We're trying to keep difficulty at a level that keeps them motivated. We want to challenge them to the point where they just start having trouble. We don't want it to be too easy or too hard."

Pavel believes that as the elderly population increases, the incidence of chronic illness - an estimated 80 percent of adults older than 65 report having at least one chronic illness, and half of all adults have at least two - such home monitoring technology will become a health care standard.

"In the near future, technology for unobtrusive monitoring, assessment and coaching will become a part of our everyday life, throughout the lifespan, much like telephones, credit cards, alarm watches and automobiles," he explained. "In infancy, early detection of dysfunctions will enable early treatment, development of special programs, and the like. In youth and adulthood, we will use the technology in sports, in alarms, reminders. So it will not be a drastic change for us to accept monitoring as we age. It is always a tradeoff between benefits and costs."

The FreeCell program is one of several "enabling technologies" under development at ORCATECH, said the center's director, Jeffrey Kaye, M.D., OHSU professor of neurology and biomedical engineering. The interdisciplinary center, established in 2004 as a National Institute on Aging Roybal Center for Aging & Technology, studies and develops technology to assess elders in their home environments. The goal is to help them retain independence by discretely collecting data that may indicate health changes long before quality of life is affected.

"It's a lot easier to treat someone when symptoms are just starting as opposed to when a full-blown crisis occurs," Kaye said. "These electronic and online methodologies help tell us early on when trouble's brewing. We're not suggesting we can make detailed diagnoses all remotely. What we're trying to do is identify trends that might tell use someone may be in trouble in the future."

Devin Williams, Spry Learning Co.'s chief executive officer, believes needs by the medical community to recognize and classify such trends will drive the development of products like the adapted FreeCell game and, as a result, "help identify early commercial applications for the technology." ORCATECH, she said, "is an excellent example of the benefits of such accelerated translational research."

Jonathan Modie | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ohsu.edu

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Real-time feedback helps save energy and water
08.02.2017 | Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg

nachricht The Great Unknown: Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents
19.01.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

New risk factors for anxiety disorders

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

MWC 2017: 5G Capital Berlin

24.02.2017 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>