The paper, published by experts from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and Camden Primary Care Trust, reveals how children in families where no adult is in paid employment have failed to benefit from the fall in child injury death rates, which dropped from 11.1 deaths per 100,000 a year in 1981 to 4 deaths per 100,000 in 2001.
The death rates from all external causes for children of parents classified as ‘never having worked or long-term unemployed’ were 13 times that for children of parents in managerial and professional occupations. For pedestrian deaths the rate was 20 times greater, for pedal cyclist deaths 27 times higher, and for deaths due to fires 37 times higher. For deaths of undetermined intent the rate was 32 times greater.
The seven leading causes of child injury deaths – being a pedestrian injured in a transport accident, being the victim of events of undetermined intent, experiencing other accidental threats to breathing, being a passenger in a car involved in an accident, being exposed to smoke, fire and flames, suffering accidental drowning or being a cyclist involved in a transport accident - accounted for over 80% of deaths due to injury and poisoning.
Phil Edwards, Lecturer in Statistics at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and lead author of the study, comments: ‘Given the decline in death rates over the last twenty years, and the relatively low number of deaths, it is surprising that these inequalities, which were identified a decade ago, are persisting into the 21st Century. Children in families where no adult is in paid employment have failed to experience the same decline in injury mortality as children from more advantaged backgrounds, and are disproportionately represented in the mortality figures.
‘We can only speculate as to why this might be. But families where no adult is in paid employment may be less likely to have a car, and more likely to be exposed to road injury risk. The higher risks of dying in house fires may reflect the quality and type of housing, with the greatest fire risks for those in temporary or poor quality housing’.
The authors calculate that about 600 of the deaths from injury and poisoning which occurred between 2001 and 2003 could have been prevented if every child in England and Wales had experienced the same low mortality rates seen among children from the most advantaged families. They conclude that ‘economic exclusion of the poorest families’ is still very much with us in 21st Century Britain.
Reductions in child injury mortality in England & Wales: have the children of unemployed parents been excluded? Phil Edwards PhD, Lecturer in Statistics; Judith Green PhD, Senior Lecturer in Sociology; Ian Roberts PhD, Professor of Epidemiology: London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. Suzanne Slater, Injury Prevention Specialist, Camden Primary Care Trust, St Pancras Hospital, London.
Lindsay Wright | alfa
Multi-year study finds 'hotspots' of ammonia over world's major agricultural areas
17.03.2017 | University of Maryland
Diabetes Drug May Improve Bone Fat-induced Defects of Fracture Healing
17.03.2017 | Deutsches Institut für Ernährungsforschung Potsdam-Rehbrücke
The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.
To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
20.03.2017 | Event News
14.03.2017 | Event News
07.03.2017 | Event News
28.03.2017 | Life Sciences
28.03.2017 | Information Technology
28.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy