Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

There’s More Than Meets The Eye To Catching A Fly Ball In The Outfield

13.04.2006


It looks so simple – catching a fly ball. But of all of the balls hit into the outfield, the straight shot is the most difficult to catch. And if it’s twilight, it’s even worse.



Ken Fuld, professor of psychology at the University of New Hampshire, studies visual psychophysics. A former assistant baseball coach at UNH with a son playing for one of the Chicago Cubs minor league teams, Fuld says there’s more than meets the eye to catching fly balls and hitting pitches for the boys of summer.

“An outfielder is computing a collision course between the ball and the fielder in much the same way as a bird of prey tries to intercept another bird also in flight for its meal or an insect tries to contact a member of the opposite sex for the purpose of mating. These are all forms of what vision scientists call visually guided behavior. Fielders must figure out the trajectory of the ball and combine that with information about their own movement in a way that requires a quick initial calculation of this information and then constant updating of information to correct for slight errors,” Fuld says.


Of all the balls hit into the outfield, those hit directly to a fielder are the most difficult to catch. As Fuld explains, there is less visual information available to the fielder on a straight shot when making these unconscious visual computations.

“Good fielders do not run to a place where the ball will land and then wait for it, but rather catch the ball while running. This is contrary to what many coaches prescribe, which is to ‘get under a ball and not drift on it,’ ” he says. “Without a side view of a ball, a fielder has mostly only information about angular velocity (rate of optical expansion of ball as it approaches) with little information on linear velocity.”

Fielders playing under high-quality artificial lighting at night have an easier time catching fly balls than those playing on a sunny day, since there are fewer, if any, shadows, and less glare. “The worst time of day, as any ball player will tell you, is twilight,” Fuld says.

For batters, the four-seam fastball is the easiest pitch to hit. Even though fastballs reach speeds of 100 mph, Fuld explains that a fastball has the straightest trajectory. On the other hand, the curve ball with a good downward motion (the so-called 12-to-6 curve, like a clock), the forkball, and the split-fingered fastball are more difficult to hit, the latter of the three being the most difficult, Fuld says.

“The spin on the other balls has a unique signature, whereas the spin of a split-fingered fastball looks like that of a regular fastball, but the ball is slightly off-speed and has that downward trajectory,” he says.

Good hitters track a pitched ball for a longer period than do non-accomplished hitters, but none can “keep their eye on the ball” for the entire length of a pitch, Fulds says – it’s physiologically impossible. “Good hitters fixate on a pitcher’s release point and then make an eye movement (called a saccade) to begin tracking the ball (called a smooth pursuit eye movement) for as long as possible. A good hitter can track the ball to within about five feet; a not-so-good hitter loses eye contact at about 10 feet,” he says.

And if you ever wonder why a good hitter lets a perfectly good pitch go by without swinging, he may be trying to calibrate its track.

“The batter purposely leaves eye contact mid-way through a pitch and makes an anticipatory saccade to the point just in front of where the ball crosses the plate. If the ball seems to rise (which it physically can’t if it was thrown overhand), it is traveling faster than the batter initially thought, but now the batter has calibrated it. The batter now has an advantage if the pitcher throws the same type of pitch next time, but as someone once said, ‘good hitting is timing; good pitching is upsetting this timing,’ " Fuld says.

Lori Wright | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.unh.edu

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Win-win strategies for climate and food security
02.10.2017 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

nachricht The personality factor: How to foster the sharing of research data
06.09.2017 | ZBW – Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Salmonella as a tumour medication

HZI researchers developed a bacterial strain that can be used in cancer therapy

Salmonellae are dangerous pathogens that enter the body via contaminated food and can cause severe infections. But these bacteria are also known to target...

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

3rd Symposium on Driving Simulation

23.10.2017 | Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Microfluidics probe 'cholesterol' of the oil industry

23.10.2017 | Life Sciences

Gamma rays will reach beyond the limits of light

23.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

The end of pneumonia? New vaccine offers hope

23.10.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>