Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Defective immune system response to smallpox vaccine detailed in new study

22.03.2006


People with Eczema may benefit from finding



Scientists supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), have identified a defect in the immune response of people with the skin condition atopic dermatitis that puts them at risk of developing serious complications following smallpox vaccination. Led by Donald Y.M. Leung, M.D., Ph.D., of the National Jewish Medical and Research Center in Denver, the researchers used laboratory-grown human skin cells to show that an immune system protein called LL-37 is critical in controlling replication of vaccinia virus, the live virus that is the key component in standard smallpox vaccine.

The investigators are part of NIAID’s Atopic Dermatitis and Vaccinia Network, which was created in 2004 to integrate clinical and animal research aimed at reducing the risk of eczema vaccinatum, a potentially deadly complication of smallpox vaccination. Eczema vaccinatum occurs almost exclusively in people who have a history of atopic dermatitis, a common, non-contagious skin disorder also known as eczema.


"This new research, the first to be published by Atopic Dermatitis and Vaccinia Network scientists, illuminates one potential mechanism leading to eczema vaccinatum and improves our understanding of the immune responses to smallpox vaccine of people with atopic dermatitis," says NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D.

Published in this month’s issue of Immunity, the study details how the overproduction in skin cells of inflammation-promoting molecules called interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 (IL-4 and IL-13) hampers LL-37 activity in people with atopic dermatitis. LL-37, a small protein produced in skin cells, is part of the body’s first line of defense against invaders. Earlier research by Dr. Leung and his colleagues suggested that LL-37 is critical in controlling the spread of vaccinia virus.

In the current study, the investigators used skin samples taken from people with atopic dermatitis (as well as samples taken from healthy volunteers without skin disease and from people with another skin condition called psoriasis) to further investigate how dysfunctions in the immune response of people with eczema set the stage for eczema vaccinatum. When exposed to vaccinia virus, the skin samples from healthy volunteers and from those with psoriasis reacted by producing more LL-37. As a result, the replication of the virus was controlled and eventually halted. In contrast, LL-37 production was minimal in skin samples from people with atopic dermatitis and vaccinia replication was poorly controlled. Next, the scientists exposed skin samples from people with atopic dermatitis to vaccinia, and then added LL-37. With the LL-37 supplement, the skin cells successfully controlled the viral replication.

Dr. Leung and his group then looked more closely at why vaccinia infection fails to induce LL-37 production in atopic dermatitis skin. Comparing immune responses of skin cells grown in the lab from healthy volunteers and from people with atopic dermatitis, the researchers found that the latter skin samples produced excessive amounts of IL-4 and IL-13. Adding IL-4 and IL-13 to skin cells from healthy volunteers prior to vaccinia exposure reduced levels of LL-37 production. Conversely, when the scientists applied IL-4- and IL-13-neutralizing antibodies to skin samples from people with atopic dermatitis, LL-37 production increased significantly.

Together, these findings suggest a rationale for new treatment approaches to eczema vaccinatum, notes Dr. Leung. One approach involves developing drugs to mimic the action of LL-37 or developing LL-37-containing creams that could be applied to the skin in order to boost its ability to contain vaccinia virus infection. Another approach could be to develop agents to neutralize IL-4 and IL-13. Although no such drugs are currently marketed, compounds that can neutralize IL-4 and IL-13 are under study as possible asthma and allergy treatments, Dr. Leung says, and might also be applied to eczema vaccinatum treatment.

Smallpox vaccine, which is made with live vaccinia virus (a close relative of the virus that causes smallpox), has not been routinely given in the United States since the early 1970s. But recent concerns about the possibility of a bioterrorist attack using smallpox virus prompted authorities to reinstate voluntary smallpox vaccination for specific groups, such as military personnel. In the first five months of 2003, the U.S. Department of Defense vaccinated more than 450,000 personnel against smallpox. During this period, the majority of those who deferred vaccination cited atopic dermatitis or other skin conditions as the main reason.

Anne A. Oplinger | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.niaid.nih.gov

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht New study: How does Europe become a leading player for software and IT services?
03.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI)

nachricht Reusable carbon nanotubes could be the water filter of the future, says RIT study
30.03.2017 | Rochester Institute of Technology

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can the immune system be boosted against Staphylococcus aureus by delivery of messenger RNA?

Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....

Im Focus: A quantum walk of photons

Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.

The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

Im Focus: World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world

Nano-hologram paves way for integration of 3-D holography into everyday electronics

An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Marine Conservation: IASS Contributes to UN Ocean Conference in New York on 5-9 June

24.05.2017 | Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

How herpesviruses win the footrace against the immune system

26.05.2017 | Life Sciences

Water forms 'spine of hydration' around DNA, group finds

26.05.2017 | Life Sciences

First Juno science results supported by University of Leicester's Jupiter 'forecast'

26.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>