Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Advice to children with sleep apnea: Wear that night-time breathing device!

15.03.2006


New ways to improve adherence, tolerance needed



Wearing a special mask to bed helps children with sleep apnea breathe and sleep better, but a small, six-month study at Johns Hopkins Children’s Center and two other pediatric hospitals suggests children aren’t always using them consistently enough to reap the maximum benefits.

The breathing masks, which deliver a gentle, steady flow of air called positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy, significantly improved breathing and oxygen levels when worn regularly, researchers report in the March issue of Pediatrics. Parents also reported that their children had improved daytime alertness at school. Sleep apnea is marked by loud snoring and disturbed sleep caused by interrupted breathing patterns.


"Despite improvements with even irregular use of the device, parents often say children are using PAP when the study shows they are not," says investigator Ann Halbower, M.D., pediatric pulmonologist at the Johns Hopkins Children’s Center. "Obstructive sleep apnea can cause learning, memory and IQ problems. Additionally, it affects breathing and oxygen levels, and while PAP therapy helps the apnea, the maximum benefits come only over time and with consistent use."

For the study, researchers enrolled 29 children between 2 and 16 years of age and instructed them to use the PAP masks at home every night. The 29 children underwent a baseline sleep study at enrollment, and 20 of them returned for a follow-up sleep study after six months. In addition, investigators surveyed the parents of the 20 children who completed the study to get their account of usage, and also tallied recorded usage data built into the PAP devices.

Comparing baseline and follow-up measures, researchers found a nine-fold average decrease in children’s apnea hypopnea index (AHI), which represents the number of interruptions in breathing per hour. Oxygen saturation improved by an average 12 percent.

"What this means is that with treatment, sleep apnea basically went from severe to mild or better," Halbower says.

It remains unclear how PAP therapy affects neurocognitive performance, even though parents reported improved alertness and dramatic reduction in the percentage of children who fell asleep during school at least once a week. Halbower cautions that these outcomes are based on subjective reports, and further studies are needed to document objectively the device’s effect on neurocognitive function. There was no difference in reported academic performance, irritability or hyperactivity.

Comparing parents’ reports and data obtained from the device’s computerized meter, researchers found that parents tended to overestimate usage by approximately two hours. Even those who used the equipment every night only did so for an average of five hours a night, which is insufficient, given children’s long sleep hours, Halbower says. In addition, 78 percent of parents told researchers that their children did not use the equipment every night.

The study did not address reasons for non-adherence to PAP therapy. Halbower says further studies are needed to examine reasons for non-adherence and to develop treatments for those children who cannot tolerate PAP.

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome affects 2 percent of children in the United States. It occurs because of partial or complete obstruction of the airways during sleep due to anatomic and/or neuromotor factors. In children, the leading cause of sleep apnea is enlarged tonsils and adenoids, and the first line of treatment is surgical removal. If untreated, sleep apnea may lead to serious problems in later life, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and increased mortality.

The study’s principal investigator is Carole Marcus, M.D., Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.

Co-investigators included Laura Sterni, M.D., assistant professor of pediatric pulmonology, and Janita Lutz, both of Johns Hopkins Children’s Center; Gerald Rosen, M.D., and Pamela Stading, M.D., University of Minnesota School of Medicine; Sally Davidson Ward, M.D., and Daisy Bolduc, M.D., University of Southern California School of Medicine; and Nancy Gordon, of Gordon & Associates, consultant to ResMed Corp, a manufacturer of respiratory medical devices.

Katerina Pesheva | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.jhmi.edu

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Win-win strategies for climate and food security
02.10.2017 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

nachricht The personality factor: How to foster the sharing of research data
06.09.2017 | ZBW – Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Terahertz spectroscopy goes nano

20.10.2017 | Information Technology

Strange but true: Turning a material upside down can sometimes make it softer

20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

NRL clarifies valley polarization for electronic and optoelectronic technologies

20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>