Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Advice to children with sleep apnea: Wear that night-time breathing device!

15.03.2006


New ways to improve adherence, tolerance needed



Wearing a special mask to bed helps children with sleep apnea breathe and sleep better, but a small, six-month study at Johns Hopkins Children’s Center and two other pediatric hospitals suggests children aren’t always using them consistently enough to reap the maximum benefits.

The breathing masks, which deliver a gentle, steady flow of air called positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy, significantly improved breathing and oxygen levels when worn regularly, researchers report in the March issue of Pediatrics. Parents also reported that their children had improved daytime alertness at school. Sleep apnea is marked by loud snoring and disturbed sleep caused by interrupted breathing patterns.


"Despite improvements with even irregular use of the device, parents often say children are using PAP when the study shows they are not," says investigator Ann Halbower, M.D., pediatric pulmonologist at the Johns Hopkins Children’s Center. "Obstructive sleep apnea can cause learning, memory and IQ problems. Additionally, it affects breathing and oxygen levels, and while PAP therapy helps the apnea, the maximum benefits come only over time and with consistent use."

For the study, researchers enrolled 29 children between 2 and 16 years of age and instructed them to use the PAP masks at home every night. The 29 children underwent a baseline sleep study at enrollment, and 20 of them returned for a follow-up sleep study after six months. In addition, investigators surveyed the parents of the 20 children who completed the study to get their account of usage, and also tallied recorded usage data built into the PAP devices.

Comparing baseline and follow-up measures, researchers found a nine-fold average decrease in children’s apnea hypopnea index (AHI), which represents the number of interruptions in breathing per hour. Oxygen saturation improved by an average 12 percent.

"What this means is that with treatment, sleep apnea basically went from severe to mild or better," Halbower says.

It remains unclear how PAP therapy affects neurocognitive performance, even though parents reported improved alertness and dramatic reduction in the percentage of children who fell asleep during school at least once a week. Halbower cautions that these outcomes are based on subjective reports, and further studies are needed to document objectively the device’s effect on neurocognitive function. There was no difference in reported academic performance, irritability or hyperactivity.

Comparing parents’ reports and data obtained from the device’s computerized meter, researchers found that parents tended to overestimate usage by approximately two hours. Even those who used the equipment every night only did so for an average of five hours a night, which is insufficient, given children’s long sleep hours, Halbower says. In addition, 78 percent of parents told researchers that their children did not use the equipment every night.

The study did not address reasons for non-adherence to PAP therapy. Halbower says further studies are needed to examine reasons for non-adherence and to develop treatments for those children who cannot tolerate PAP.

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome affects 2 percent of children in the United States. It occurs because of partial or complete obstruction of the airways during sleep due to anatomic and/or neuromotor factors. In children, the leading cause of sleep apnea is enlarged tonsils and adenoids, and the first line of treatment is surgical removal. If untreated, sleep apnea may lead to serious problems in later life, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and increased mortality.

The study’s principal investigator is Carole Marcus, M.D., Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.

Co-investigators included Laura Sterni, M.D., assistant professor of pediatric pulmonology, and Janita Lutz, both of Johns Hopkins Children’s Center; Gerald Rosen, M.D., and Pamela Stading, M.D., University of Minnesota School of Medicine; Sally Davidson Ward, M.D., and Daisy Bolduc, M.D., University of Southern California School of Medicine; and Nancy Gordon, of Gordon & Associates, consultant to ResMed Corp, a manufacturer of respiratory medical devices.

Katerina Pesheva | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.jhmi.edu

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht WAKE-UP provides new treatment option for stroke patients | International study led by UKE
17.05.2018 | Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf

nachricht First form of therapy for childhood dementia CLN2 developed
25.04.2018 | Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Powerful IT security for the car of the future – research alliance develops new approaches

The more electronics steer, accelerate and brake cars, the more important it is to protect them against cyber-attacks. That is why 15 partners from industry and academia will work together over the next three years on new approaches to IT security in self-driving cars. The joint project goes by the name Security For Connected, Autonomous Cars (SecForCARs) and has funding of €7.2 million from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Infineon is leading the project.

Vehicles already offer diverse communication interfaces and more and more automated functions, such as distance and lane-keeping assist systems. At the same...

Im Focus: Molecular switch will facilitate the development of pioneering electro-optical devices

A research team led by physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has developed molecular nanoswitches that can be toggled between two structurally different states using an applied voltage. They can serve as the basis for a pioneering class of devices that could replace silicon-based components with organic molecules.

The development of new electronic technologies drives the incessant reduction of functional component sizes. In the context of an international collaborative...

Im Focus: LZH showcases laser material processing of tomorrow at the LASYS 2018

At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.

At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...

Im Focus: Self-illuminating pixels for a new display generation

There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?

At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...

Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

In focus: Climate adapted plants

25.05.2018 | Event News

Save the date: Forum European Neuroscience – 07-11 July 2018 in Berlin, Germany

02.05.2018 | Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

In focus: Climate adapted plants

25.05.2018 | Event News

Flow probes from the 3D printer

25.05.2018 | Machine Engineering

Less is more? Gene switch for healthy aging found

25.05.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>