Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

X chromosome dosage compensation proven in germ cells

16.02.2006


X chromosome dosage compensation does occur in germ cells. A study published today in the open access journal Journal of Biology reveals that expression of the genes on the X chromosome is doubled in Drosophila germ cells to compensate for the missing second X chromosome. The study shows that this also occurs in C. elegans and mice somatic cells. In human female somatic cells, one of the two X chromosomes is inactivated to equilibrate expression between the sexes, but this unbalances the expression of the X compared to the other chromosomes. This study is the first demonstration that the X chromosome is upregulated in germs cells, which brings the X chromosome and the other chromosomes back into balance. The study is also the first demonstration that upregulation of the X chromosome in somatic tissue is conserved across species.



Vaijayanti Gupta from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, USA collaborated with colleagues from the Center for Information Technology at the NIH and colleagues from Incyte Genomics, Palo Alto, USA. Gupta et al. carried out microarray analyses of 2,245 genes present on the X chromosome of Drosophila germ cells and somatic cells. Drosophila males have one X chromosome and two autosomes (X;AA) while Drosophila females have two X chromosomes and two autosomes (XX;AA).

The results of the microarray analyses show that the single male X chromosome is expressed at the same level as the two female X chromosomes put together in both somatic cells and germ cells. By creating sex-transformed flies, Gupta et al. were able to show a two-fold X-chromosome mRNA level difference compared with the autosomes in both male and female germ cells with a single X chromosome. This indicates that the X chromosome is hypertranscribed compared to the autosomes in germ cells. Gupta et al.’s results suggest that the two X chromosomes in female germ cells are repressed to match their expression to the autosomes. The authors also demonstrate that dosage compensation occurs for all the genes on the X chromosome.


Gupta et al. then show that dosage compensation by increased X chromosome expression occurs in male and female somatic cells in C.elegans and mice, and suggest that dosage compensation is essential across species.

In Drosophila somatic cells, dosage compensation is dependent on the male-specific-lethal complex - a set of acetylating proteins and non-coding RNAs that increase gene expression. This complex is not present in germ cells and the authors write "there are a host of post transcriptional mechanisms that could conceivably mediate germline dosage compensation."

Juliette Savin | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.biomedcentral.com

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Smart Data Transformation – Surfing the Big Wave
02.12.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Informationstechnik FIT

nachricht Climate change could outpace EPA Lake Champlain protections
18.11.2016 | University of Vermont

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer ISE Develops Highly Compact, High Frequency DC/DC Converter for Aviation

The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

UTSA study describes new minimally invasive device to treat cancer and other illnesses

02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering

Plasma-zapping process could yield trans fat-free soybean oil product

02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

What do Netflix, Google and planetary systems have in common?

02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>