Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Yale study explains complex infection fighting mechanism

11.01.2006


Yale School of Medicine researchers report in Nature Immunology how infection fighting mechanisms in the body can distinguish between a virus and the healthy body, shedding new light on auto immune disorders.



The infection fighters in question, toll-like receptors (TLRs), function by recognizing viral, bacterial or fungal pathogens and then sending signals throughout the immune system announcing that an infection has occurred.

Viruses change features to avoid being recognized, thereby triggering the immune response. But TLRs recognize the highly conserved features of pathogens, features that are often difficult to change without affecting the punch of the pathogen, said lead author of the study, Gregory Barton of the University of California at Berkeley who performed the research while in the Section of Immunobiology at Yale School of Medicine.


He said that one exception to the general view of how TLRs work is the way TLRs recognize viruses since viruses lack the unique features of bacterial or fungal pathogens. Because of this, the immune system has had to find other ways to recognize viral infection.

"In particular, the DNA or RNA that comprise viral genomes can stimulate certain TLRs," Barton said. "This strategy comes at an enormous cost. By targeting the DNA or RNA of viruses, the immune system runs the risk of accidentally recognizing its own DNA and RNA as foreign and inappropriately making an immune response against itself. This autoimmune condition is called systemic lupus erythematosus or SLE, and can be devastating for those unfortunate enough to suffer from it."

The work of senior author Ruslan Medzhitov, professor of immunobiology, and his colleagues, has focused on trying to understand how recognition of a body’s own DNA is avoided by those TLRs involved in viral nucleic acid recognition.

"We have known for some time that those TLRs are sequestered in specialized compartments within cells," Barton said. "The significance of this localization, however, was unclear. We have now shown that the localization is, in fact, a key factor for the avoidance of self DNA recognition as well as for the optimal recognition of viral DNA."

He said the research group was able to construct a modified version of one of the TLRs, moving it from the specialized internal compartment within the cell to the cell surface. This engineered version of the TLR had enhanced recognition of self DNA, yet poor recognition of viral DNA, proving that isolation of certain TLRs within these specialized intracellular compartments is an important checkpoint in maintaining the balance between viral and self nucleic acid recognition.

"This work has potential implications for our understanding of the molecular basis of lupus (SLE)," Barton said. "It is possible that certain mutations in TLRs will affect their localization within the cell and give them better access to self nucleic acid. Understanding how this balance is maintained and how it can go wrong is an important step in the fight against autoimmune disorders."

Jacqueline Weaver | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.yale.edu

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht New study: How does Europe become a leading player for software and IT services?
03.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI)

nachricht Reusable carbon nanotubes could be the water filter of the future, says RIT study
30.03.2017 | Rochester Institute of Technology

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Fighting drug resistant tuberculosis – InfectoGnostics meets MYCO-NET² partners in Peru

28.04.2017 | Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Wireless power can drive tiny electronic devices in the GI tract

28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering

Ice cave in Transylvania yields window into region's past

28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences

Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis

28.04.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>