Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Study reveals classic symbiotic relationship between ants, bacteria

06.01.2006


Ants that tend and harvest gardens of fungus have a secret weapon against the parasites that invade their crops: antibiotic-producing bacteria that the insects harbor on their bodies.



Writing today in the journal Science, an international team led by University of Wisconsin-Madison bacteriologist Cameron Currie illustrates the intricate and ancient nature of this mutualistic relationship. The researchers found that the ants house the bacteria in specialized, highly adapted cavities and nourish them with glandular secretions-an indication that the ants, bacteria, fungus and parasites have likely been evolving together for tens of millions of years.

"Every ant species [that we have examined] has different, highly modified structures to support different types of bacteria," says Currie. "This indicates the ants have rapidly adapted to maintain the bacteria. It also indicates that the co-evolution between the bacteria and the ants, as well as the fungus and parasites, has been occurring since very early on, apparently for tens of millions of years."


Furthermore, Currie adds, the fact that the species have coexisted for so long means there might be a mechanism in place to decrease the rate of antibiotic resistance - which could help address a significant problem facing modern medicine. "We can learn a lot about our own use of antibiotics from this system," he says.

Currie studies the intricate relationships between certain species of ants in central and South America, the fungus they cultivate for food, the parasite that invades the fungus, and the bacteria that the ants harbor to fight the parasite. The phenomenon is a classic example of mutually beneficial symbiosis, and Currie views it as a model system with the potential to shed light on the way other organisms interact.

Although the ants and their fungus gardens had been closely studied for dozens of years, Currie was the first scientist to identify the crucial role of bacteria and the antibiotics they produce. He made a key insight that white spots on the ants, which were previously dismissed as "waxy blooms," were actually colonies of bacteria.

In the latest phase of his research, Currie, who began this study when he was at the University of Kansas, and his team removed the external blooms of bacteria from two ant species in the genus Cyphomyrmex and examined the exoskeleton beneath with a high-powered microscope. Their investigation revealed crypts attached to endocrine glands, both of which were previously unnoticed by scientists.

In fact, the crypts are specially adapted to the type of bacteria each species harbors - evidence that the ants are capable of rapidly changing to maintain their bacterial residents.

"These two species of ants are very difficult to differentiate other than through molecular analysis," says Currie. "There are almost no morphological, or physical, differences between the two. However, the crypts in the exoskeleton are distinguishable. We can actually use them to tell the two species apart."

The degree of specialization indicates that the association between the ants and the bacteria is ancient, says Currie, and likely vital to the species’ survival. The phenomenon extends beyond the two species of Cyphomyrmex to about 210 species of fungus-growing ants, which harbor many different species of a specific group of bacteria.

"For me, it shows us how little we know about natural systems and microbes in nature. Fungus-growing ants are very well studied, yet this morphological characteristic went unnoticed until now. What other organisms might be taking advantage of this type of association? What don’t we know about other systems that are not as closely studied as these ants?"

Currie’s collaborators include Michael Poulsen and Jacobus Boomsma of the University of Copenhagen, John Mendenhall of the University of Texas at Austin, and Johan Billen of the Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium. Currie, who began this work while at the University of Kansas, is also affiliated with the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama.

Cameron Currie | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.bact.wisc.edu

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht The Great Unknown: Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents
19.01.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung

nachricht A sudden drop in outdoor temperature increases the risk of respiratory infections
11.01.2017 | University of Gothenburg

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Traffic jam in empty space

New success for Konstanz physicists in studying the quantum vacuum

An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Sustainable Water use in Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

19.01.2017 | Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Helmholtz International Fellow Award for Sarah Amalia Teichmann

20.01.2017 | Awards Funding

An innovative high-performance material: biofibers made from green lacewing silk

20.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Ion treatments for cardiac arrhythmia — Non-invasive alternative to catheter-based surgery

20.01.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>