Studies investigating the long-term outcomes of alcoholism treatment are rare and inconsistent. A nine-year study in the January issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research investigates the occurrence of abstinence, lapse, and relapse among chronic alcoholics while exploring the role that "alcohol deterrents" (ADs) – specifically, disulfiram and calcium carbimide – may play. Results indicate that ADs can help achieve an abstinence rate of more than 50 percent.
"Although up to 30 percent of patients may claim to be abstinent two to three years after treatment," said Hannelore Ehrenreich, head of the division of clinical neuroscience at the Max-Planck-Institute of Experimental Medicine in Germany and corresponding author for the study, "objective laboratory data indicate that only six to 20 percent of patients are abstinent two years after therapy. These results reflect therapists clinical experience that alcoholism is a chronic and relapsing disease … similar to other chronic conditions such as hypertension or diabetes, and should be accepted as a disorder that requires long-term or life-long treatment. This study is the first report on supervised, long-term administration of ADs, with a focus on the psychological rather than the pharmacological action of ADs."
Alcohol deterrents seem to be more widely accepted and used in Europe than they are in North America, said Colin Brewer, research director of the Stapleford Centre in London. "I have co-authored a study showing that the three Anglo-Saxon countries examined – the U.K, U.S. and New Zealand – had the lowest use," he said. "Furthermore, a recent U.S. study showed that addiction specialists prescribed disulfiram or naltrexone for fewer than 15 percent of their alcoholic patients. Conversely, disulfiram use is certainly common in Spain, Portugal, Germany, Austria and Scandinavia."
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Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
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The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
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The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
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