Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

HIV-positive patients have shorter survival periods while awaiting liver transplants

07.11.2005


A new study on HIV-positive patients eligible for liver transplants found that their survival while waiting for a transplant is significantly shorter than patients who are HIV-negative. Other than infection, which caused many of the deaths, there appear to be no other factors that predict a poor outcome for these patients.



The results of this study appear in the November 2005 issue of Liver Transplantation, the official journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) and the International Liver Transplantation Society (ILTS). The journal is published on behalf of the societies by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and is available online via Wiley InterScience at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/journal/livertransplantation.

HIV-positive patients progress more rapidly to end-stage liver disease (ESLD), a condition requiring transplant, but post-transplant survival has improved in recent years, possibly because of advances in antiretroviral therapy. However, some patients do not survive long enough to undergo a transplant. Led by Margaret V. Ragni at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, researchers studied whether poorer survival prior to transplant is related to the severity of either liver disease or HIV disease in these patients.


A total of 58 patients who were HIV-positive with ESLD were evaluated for transplant eligibility at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center between 1997 and 2002. These patients were followed, along with 1,359 HIV-negative patients who were also evaluated for transplant. Of the 58 HIV-positive patients, 48 percent died before a transplant was performed, compared with 16 percent of the HIV-negative group. In addition, the survival period was much shorter in the HIV-positive group (880 versus 1,427 days), but the severity of their ESLD was no worse than the HIV-negative group. More than half of the deaths in the HIV-positive patients were due to infection.

The findings indicate that the development of ESLD in HIV-positive patients is associated with a high risk of early death. Speculating as to why this is the case, the authors state that "when ESLD develops in an HIV-positive individual, the already defective host defense against infection attributed to HIV may be further weakened by the immune defects associated with liver failure, resulting in a greater vulnerability of the HIV-positive candidate to infection or sepsis [an infection in the blood]." They further suggest that patients with HIV infection should be evaluated for transplant earlier in the course of their ESLD, as they appear to be at greater risk for infection, and that studies on whether prophylactic antibiotics may have a role in preventing this scenario may be warranted. They conclude: "Until then, it would seem prudent to monitor HIV-positive transplant candidates very closely for early signs of infection, inform them of the potential risk for infection, and urge them to seek medical attention at the earliest signs or symptoms of infection."

In the same issue, an accompanying editorial by Peter G. Stock, of the Department of Surgery at the University of California in San Francisco, CA notes that the study is the first documentation of a more rapid demise of HIV-patients awaiting transplant, adding that the importance of early transplant referral for these patients cannot be underestimated. The author suggests that transplant referral for HIV-positive patients may be delayed because HIV infection is still perceived by physicians as a barrier to undergoing a transplant, and these patients may therefore not be encouraged to meet the necessary transplant prerequisites in a timely manner, such as abstaining from alcohol and narcotics. In addition, the time it takes for the various specialists caring for HIV patients to coordinate a referral to a transplant center may be partially responsible for the delay. Also, by the time liver function in HIV infected patients deteriorates enough to warrant a transplant, they may no longer meet other criteria. The author notes that additional organs for these patients might be obtained via living donor grafts, which is not without risks to both donor and recipient, or the use of high infectious risk donors, excluding those who are HIV-positive. Although there is some concern about HIV transmission during a transplant procedure, the author states that the risk is actually much lower than the risk of transmission of Hepatitis C virus through a needle-stick. He concludes that "synchronized multi-special care along with early referral will help to minimize the number of deaths on the waiting lists and facilitate excellent outcomes following liver transplantation in this deserving group of recipients."

David Greenberg | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.interscience.wiley.com/journal/livertransplantation

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Smart Data Transformation – Surfing the Big Wave
02.12.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Informationstechnik FIT

nachricht Climate change could outpace EPA Lake Champlain protections
18.11.2016 | University of Vermont

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Closing the carbon loop

08.12.2016 | Life Sciences

Applicability of dynamic facilitation theory to binary hard disk systems

08.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

Scientists track chemical and structural evolution of catalytic nanoparticles in 3-D

08.12.2016 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>