Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Lung Scarring Diseases Linked to Genes and Smoking

02.11.2005


New research shows that idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), a group of potentially fatal disorders that affects the lungs, may be caused by an interaction between a specific genetic background and cigarette smoking. In a study of 111 families that had at least two relatives with IIP, people who smoked cigarettes were three times more likely than non-smokers to develop the disease. The research was supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), both institutes within the National Institutes of Health.



IIPs are often accompanied by scarring and inflammation of the lung known as pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis makes the delivery of oxygen to the body’s tissues difficult and is often fatal. About one-half of patients die within the first five years of being diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The study appearing in the November 1 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care provides new insight into what might cause IIP and new directions for preventing these diseases.

"This study illustrates the important role that a specific environmental exposure, in this case cigarette smoking, can play in the development of this type of lung disease among people who have a specific gene,” said David A. Schwartz, M.D., NIEHS Director and a lead researcher on the study. “It once again underscores why people should not smoke.”


“Pulmonary fibrosis currently affects approximately 100,000 people in the United States, with an estimated 30,000 people being diagnosed each year,” added Elizabeth G. Nabel, MD, NHLBI Director. “This study enhances our understanding of one form of pulmonary fibrosis, which could help lead us to strategies for genetic testing, prevention, and treatment of this devastating and complex disease.”

Researchers from three sites enrolled and evaluated 111 families with a diagnosis of IIP in at least two affected relatives. The sample included 309 people affected with an IIP and 360 unaffected relatives. Each participant completed a detailed health and environmental exposure questionnaire, a chest x-ray, and a lung diffusion test, which determines how well oxygen passes from the air sacs of the lungs into the blood.

The researchers evaluated the data in many different ways. They used a family-based case control study to determine if there was a relationship between cigarette smoking and familial interstitial pneumonia (FIP). They also used two methods to determine if there was in fact a genetic component to FIP. FIP is the term used when 2 or more cases of IIP occur in the immediate family.

The researchers found that there is a genetic basis for this disease. In addition to the fact that 111 families had 2 or more relatives with this disease, the researchers also found similar age-at-diagnosis and significant risk among siblings. Older people, males, and those who smoked also showed a greater risk of developing FIP. After controlling for age and gender, having ever smoked cigarettes increased the likelihood of developing this disease 3.6 times.

“We now know that a certain genotype places someone at risk for this disease,” said Mark Steele, M.D., Associate Professor, Duke University Medical Center, the lead author on the paper. “Independent of genes, cigarette smoking also contributes to the development of this disease. The next step is to identify the specific gene or genes that cause the disease.”

Steele also noted that because this is the first study to include different types of IIP within the same families, it may be plausible that although a common gene may predispose one to develop FIP, some other factor, such as the environment, may result in a unique type of IIP.

In addition to Duke University Medical Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and National Jewish Medical and Research Center participated in the study. The University of Colorado Health Sciences Center served as coordinating center.

NIH-supported research on the causes and treatments of pulmonary fibrosis is ongoing. For example, NHLBI established an Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Clinical Trials Network in May 2005 to conduct randomized, multi-drug therapeutic trials to stabilize pulmonary fibrosis in newly diagnosed patients.

NHLBI and NIEHS are part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Federal Government’s primary agency for biomedical and behavioral research. NIH is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIEHS information on the effects of the environment on human health is available at www.niehs.nih.gov. NHLBI information on lung diseases is available at www.nhlbi.nih.gov.

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) — The Nation’s Medical Research Agency — includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. It is the primary Federal agency for conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and it investigates the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit http://www.nih.gov.

NHLBI Communications Office | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.nih.gov
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov
http://www.niehs.nih.gov

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht New study: How does Europe become a leading player for software and IT services?
03.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI)

nachricht Reusable carbon nanotubes could be the water filter of the future, says RIT study
30.03.2017 | Rochester Institute of Technology

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Fighting drug resistant tuberculosis – InfectoGnostics meets MYCO-NET² partners in Peru

28.04.2017 | Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Wireless power can drive tiny electronic devices in the GI tract

28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering

Ice cave in Transylvania yields window into region's past

28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences

Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis

28.04.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>