New research shows that idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), a group of potentially fatal disorders that affects the lungs, may be caused by an interaction between a specific genetic background and cigarette smoking. In a study of 111 families that had at least two relatives with IIP, people who smoked cigarettes were three times more likely than non-smokers to develop the disease. The research was supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), both institutes within the National Institutes of Health.
IIPs are often accompanied by scarring and inflammation of the lung known as pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis makes the delivery of oxygen to the body’s tissues difficult and is often fatal. About one-half of patients die within the first five years of being diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The study appearing in the November 1 issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care provides new insight into what might cause IIP and new directions for preventing these diseases.
"This study illustrates the important role that a specific environmental exposure, in this case cigarette smoking, can play in the development of this type of lung disease among people who have a specific gene,” said David A. Schwartz, M.D., NIEHS Director and a lead researcher on the study. “It once again underscores why people should not smoke.”
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A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
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The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
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Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water
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The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...
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