Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New Study Shows Measles Immunization May Prevent Fatal Brain Infection

28.10.2005


A new study has found wild-type measles virus in tissues from patients who died of a fatal brain infection, providing evidence against the notion that the strain of virus in the measles vaccine caused the infection. The study, in the November 15 issue of The Journal of Infectious Diseases, now available online, also concludes that vaccination against measles could prevent many more cases of the disease, known as subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, or SSPE, than previously thought.



Because persons have apparently contracted SSPE without ever knowingly having had measles, it could not be ruled out that the measles vaccine strain caused the infection. William Bellini, PhD, and colleagues at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), sought to evaluate that notion.

Brain tissue specimens from 11 patients suspected of having SSPE were examined. Five of the 11 patients with samples and 7 additional SSPE patients identified in case reports were related to infections during the resurgence of measles in the United States during a drop in measles vaccination rates between 1989 and 1991. The ages of the patients ranged from 5 to 36 years, with a mean of 14.


The researchers discovered wild-type measles virus in brain tissues from individuals with SSPE who had no previous diagnosis of measles and had been vaccinated. Case histories and demographics, when available, suggested that most of the individuals had very likely contracted measles prior to being vaccinated.

The fact that 12 SSPE patients identified in the study had measles between 1989 and 1991 raises the incidence of measles-induced SSPE to a level approximately 10 times higher than the statistic often cited. That figure, based on data available in 1982, estimated that 8.5 in 1 million persons contracted SSPE, a rate grossly underestimating the risk, now thought to be between 7 and 11 per 100,000.

The higher incidence could be due to an underreporting of diagnosed measles cases, despite clinical guidelines on reporting infections. Other possibilities include a higher incidence of measles during the 1989-1991 resurgence in the population with the highest risk for SSPE, namely children under the age of five, or because wild-type viruses of the genotype identified are more likely to cause SSPE.

The measles vaccine is known to be highly effective. Two doses provide immunity to 99 percent of those vaccinated. Since the risk of SSPE was much higher than originally estimated, and since the vaccine had not caused SSPE in the cases studied, the researchers concluded that measles vaccination programs prevent many more of the fatal brain infections than previously thought.

In an accompanying editorial, Samuel L Katz, MD, of Duke University, who was part of the team that developed the measles vaccine, strongly urged support for global efforts to reduce measles mortality through immunization programs. Despite recent reductions in the worldwide toll of measles, he noted, the disease still accounts for almost half of the 1.6 million annual childhood deaths due to vaccine-preventable diseases.

Steve Baragona | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.idsociety.org

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht New study: How does Europe become a leading player for software and IT services?
03.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI)

nachricht Reusable carbon nanotubes could be the water filter of the future, says RIT study
30.03.2017 | Rochester Institute of Technology

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Strathclyde-led research develops world's highest gain high-power laser amplifier

The world's highest gain high power laser amplifier - by many orders of magnitude - has been developed in research led at the University of Strathclyde.

The researchers demonstrated the feasibility of using plasma to amplify short laser pulses of picojoule-level energy up to 100 millijoules, which is a 'gain'...

Im Focus: Can the immune system be boosted against Staphylococcus aureus by delivery of messenger RNA?

Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....

Im Focus: A quantum walk of photons

Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.

The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Marine Conservation: IASS Contributes to UN Ocean Conference in New York on 5-9 June

24.05.2017 | Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Camera on NASA's Lunar Orbiter survived 2014 meteoroid hit

29.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Strathclyde-led research develops world's highest gain high-power laser amplifier

29.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A 3-D look at the 2015 El Niño

29.05.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>