Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Transmission of Hepatitis C among family members

24.08.2005


A study examines the incidence and risk factors associated with Hepatitis C infection in rural Egypt



The prevalence of antibodies to Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in Egypt is among the highest in the world. From the 1950s until 1982 hundreds of thousands were infected during mass campaigns to control schistosomiasis (a parasitic disease) using mass therapy with intravenous antimony compounds, but little is known about current risk factors and rates of transmission. Studies of high risk populations, such as intravenous drug users, shed little light on HCV transmission in Egypt where this high risk behavior is rare.

In a study led by G. Thomas Strickland, M.D. of the Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore, MD and published in the September 2005 issue of Hepatology, Egyptian and American researchers surveyed rates of HCV infection in two rural communities having a prevalence of antibody to HCV of 24 and 9 percent.


Hepatology, the official journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD), is published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., and is available online via Wiley InterScience at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/journal/hepatology.

A total of 10,112 HCV negative individuals were identified during an annual survey in 1997, with follow-up performed on an average of 1.6 years later in 6,738 subjects. Of these, 33 developed HCV antibodies, an incidence of 3.1/1000 person-years (PY), and 6.8/1000 PY in the 28 subjects in the village having the 24 percent prevalence of HCV. None of the 33 individuals was diagnosed with viral hepatitis or reported symptoms of acute hepatitis. An analysis of risk factors showed the strongest predictor of infection with HCV was having and anti-HCV positive family member. Among those that did, incidence was 5.8/1000 PY, compared to 1.0/1000 PY; 27/33 incident cases had an anti-HCV positive family member. Parenteral exposures increased the risk of HCV, but were not statistically significant; 67 percent of seroconverters were less than 20 years old, and the highest incidence rate (14.1/1000 PY) was in children under 10 living in households with an anti-HCV positive parent in the village with the high prevalence of HCV antibodies. The infection rate was also increased (13.1/1000 PY) in men married to an HCV positive woman.

"We believe HCV exposures in rural Egyptian communities are usually less intense than those in individuals infected by contaminated blood, either from transfusion of blood or a blood product, or from abuse of intravenous drugs," the authors state. Although not statistically proven to be a risk in this study, they cite frequent injections, usually given at home for health purposes with syringes and needles sometimes used for more than one person, as the most common parenteral exposure route. The strong relationship between the risk of infection in children and the presence of HCV antibodies in their parents suggests that transmission of HCV is occurring between family members, possibly by exposure to infectious blood or saliva, or by sharing needles. In the past, mass treatment campaigns for schistosomiasis involving multiple injections may have caused numerous HCV infections in families, but this would not account for current infection rates, other than placing younger members of families living with those who contracted HCV in this way at higher risk.

The authors conclude: "It is exceedingly important to learn the mechanisms by which HCV transmission is occurring between family members so that preventive measures can be initiated, particularly in children having HCV-infected parents."

David Greenberg | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.interscience.wiley.com/journal/hepatology
http://www.wiley.com

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht WAKE-UP provides new treatment option for stroke patients | International study led by UKE
17.05.2018 | Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf

nachricht First form of therapy for childhood dementia CLN2 developed
25.04.2018 | Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: LZH showcases laser material processing of tomorrow at the LASYS 2018

At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.

At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...

Im Focus: Self-illuminating pixels for a new display generation

There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?

At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...

Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

Im Focus: Dozens of binaries from Milky Way's globular clusters could be detectable by LISA

Next-generation gravitational wave detector in space will complement LIGO on Earth

The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. A...

Im Focus: Entangled atoms shine in unison

A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. This fundamental demonstration could lead to the development of highly sensitive optical gradiometers for the precise measurement of the gravitational field or the earth's magnetic field.

The age of quantum technology has long been heralded. Decades of research into the quantum world have led to the development of methods that make it possible...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Save the date: Forum European Neuroscience – 07-11 July 2018 in Berlin, Germany

02.05.2018 | Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Research reveals how order first appears in liquid crystals

23.05.2018 | Life Sciences

Space-like gravity weakens biochemical signals in muscle formation

23.05.2018 | Life Sciences

NIST puts the optical microscope under the microscope to achieve atomic accuracy

23.05.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>