By the time the human genome was mapped, cancer researchers had already begun investigating the proteins that were encoded by these newly identified genes. As the molecular engines that control all functions of the body, scientists wanted to find out how proteins work to promote health, or malfunction to cause disease. Subsequently, their discoveries have led to the development of a whole new arsenal of therapies designed to target proteins in cancer cells. But not all patients respond to treatment with these targeted drugs, prompting researchers to look for molecular clues within tumor cells that cause resistance to treatment.
Now, cancer researchers at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center have identified a protein called EMP-1 that is present in the tumors of patients who fail to respond to treatment with gefitinib, or IressaTM, a drug that has limited success in the treatment of patients with non small-cell lung cancer – the most common and deadly form of lung cancer. The study, conducted in both laboratory tests and patients with advanced non small-cell lung cancer who were treated with gefitinib, is published on-line during the week of August 8 – 12, in an "Early Edition" of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, and may ultimately help physicians identify patients who would benefit from treatment with gefitinib.
"Our results show that the EMP-1 protein is a biomarker for resistance to treatment with gefitinib and may enable us to identify patients who wont respond to the drug," said David Agus, M.D., senior author of the study and Research Director at the Louis Warschaw Prostate Cancer Center at the Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. "If we know who wont respond, we can explore other treatment options sooner and use gefitinib, when patients will benefit. This means we will be able to maximize use of this drug and treat more patients effectively."
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In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
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A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
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The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
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