Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Cognitive therapy reduces repeat suicide attempts by 50 percent

03.08.2005


Recent suicide attempters treated with cognitive therapy were 50 percent less likely to try to kill themselves again within 18 months than those who did not receive the therapy, report researchers supported by the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH) National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). A targeted form of cognitive therapy designed to prevent suicide proved better at lifting depression and feelings of hopelessness than the usual care available in the community, according to Gregory Brown, Ph.D., Aaron Beck, M.D., University of Pennsylvania, and colleagues, who published their findings in the August 3, 2005 Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).



"Since even one previous attempt multiplies suicide risk by 38-40 times and suicide is the fourth leading cause of death for adults under 65, a proven way to prevent repeat attempts has important public health implications," said NIMH Director Thomas Insel, M.D.

To achieve a large enough sample to reliably detect differences in the effectiveness of interventions, the researchers first screened hundreds of potential suicide attempters admitted to the emergency room of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, ultimately recruiting 120 patients into the study.


Averaging in their mid-thirties, 61 percent of the participants were female, 60 percent black, 35 percent white, and 5 percent Hispanic and other ethnicities. Most had attempted to kill themselves by drug overdosing (58 percent), with 17 percent by stabbing, 7 percent by jumping and 4 percent by hanging, shooting or drowning. Seventy-seven percent had major depression and 68 percent a substance use disorder.

After a clinical evaluation, each participant was randomly assigned to one of two conditions: cognitive therapy or usual care – services available in the community. Cognitive therapy was developed by Beck in the 1970s and has been applied successfully in a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. Those in the cognitive group were scheduled to receive 10 outpatient weekly or biweekly cognitive therapy sessions specifically developed for preventing suicide attempts. The sessions helped patients find a more effective way of looking at their problems by learning new ways to handle negative thoughts and feelings of hopelessness. In a relapse-prevention task near the end of their therapy, they were asked to focus directly on the events, thoughts, feelings and behaviors that led to their previous suicide attempts and explain how they would respond in a more adaptive way. If they passed this task successfully, their cognitive therapy ended; if they were unsuccessful, additional sessions were provided.

Both groups were encouraged to receive usual care from clinicians in the community and were tracked by study case managers by mail and phone throughout the 18 month follow-up period. The case managers offered referrals to – but not payment for – local mental health and drug abuse treatment and social services.

About half of the participants in both groups took psychotropic medications and about 13 to 16 percent received drug abuse treatment. About 27 percent of those in the usual care group received psychotherapy outside of the study, compared to 21 percent of those also receiving cognitive therapy.

Over the year-and-a-half follow-up period, only 24 percent (13) of those in the cognitive therapy group made repeat suicide attempts, compared to 42 percent (23) of the usual care group. Although the groups did not differ significantly in suicidal thoughts, those who received cognitive therapy scored better on measures of depression severity and hopelessness, which the researchers suggest "may be more highly associated with a reduced risk of repeat suicide attempts."

"We were surprised by the amount of energy and resources it takes to reach out to individuals who attempt suicide," noted Brown. "This population lacks a positive attitude toward the mental health system and often fails to show up for scheduled appointments. However, the combination of cognitive therapy plus case management services was effective in preventing suicide attempts." He suggests that cognitive therapy’s short-term nature makes it a good fit for treatment of suicide attempters at community mental health centers.

"Suicide and suicide attempts are serous public health problems that devastate individuals, families and communities," added Dr. Ileana Aria, Director, CDC’s National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. "This research provides valuable insight for those treating people at risk, so that they can learn adaptive ways to handle stress and resolve their problems and thereby reduce the likelihood they will resort to suicidal behavior as a solution."

Also participating in the study were: Drs. Thomas Ten Have, Sharon Xie, and Judd Hollander, University of Pennsylvania, and Dr. Gregg Henriques, James Madison University.

Jules Asher | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.nih.gov

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht A sudden drop in outdoor temperature increases the risk of respiratory infections
11.01.2017 | University of Gothenburg

nachricht Urbanization to convert 300,000 km2 of prime croplands
27.12.2016 | Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change (MCC) gGmbH

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

Im Focus: How to inflate a hardened concrete shell with a weight of 80 t

At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).

Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...

Im Focus: Bacterial Pac Man molecule snaps at sugar

Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.

The cells of the mouth, nose and intestinal mucosa produce large quantities of a chemical called sialic acid. Many bacteria possess a special transport system...

Im Focus: Newly proposed reference datasets improve weather satellite data quality

UMD, NOAA collaboration demonstrates suitability of in-orbit datasets for weather satellite calibration

"Traffic and weather, together on the hour!" blasts your local radio station, while your smartphone knows the weather halfway across the world. A network of...

Im Focus: Repairing defects in fiber-reinforced plastics more efficiently

Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) are frequently used in the aeronautic and automobile industry. However, the repair of workpieces made of these composite materials is often less profitable than exchanging the part. In order to increase the lifetime of FRP parts and to make them more eco-efficient, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) and the Apodius GmbH want to combine a new measuring device for fiber layer orientation with an innovative laser-based repair process.

Defects in FRP pieces may be production or operation-related. Whether or not repair is cost-effective depends on the geometry of the defective area, the tools...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

Nothing will happen without batteries making it happen!

05.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Multiregional brain on a chip

16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

New technology enables 5-D imaging in live animals, humans

16.01.2017 | Information Technology

Researchers develop environmentally friendly soy air filter

16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>