Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Genetic amplification (NAAT) test detects HIV more effectively than standard tests in urban study

28.02.2005


Adding a new HIV screening method, called nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), to standard HIV testing, researchers were able to uncover six percent more cases of HIV infection in urban STD and drug treatment clinics and HIV testing sites in Atlanta than with standard HIV antibody tests alone. The research will be presented at the 12th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Boston on February 25, 2005 by Frances Priddy, MD, assistant professor of medicine at Emory University School of Medicine.



Physician/researchers at Emory, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the Georgia Department of Human Resources used NAAT to screen clients receiving routing HIV testing and counseling at the urban clinics between October 2002 and January 2004. The research team used both standard antibody testing and NAAT testing to screen specimens from 2,202 people who had not previously tested positive for HIV. Sixty-six of the specimens were found to be HIV antibody positive and 2,135 were HIV antibody negative using standard tests. Using NAAT, however, four of the antibody-negative specimens tested positive for HIV viral genes.

On further examination, three of those four individuals were found to have definite acute HIV infections, although only one showed clinical symptoms. One of the four individuals had unclear results and may have had either acute or chronic HIV. In addition, three of the four individuals had HIV viruses with multidrug resistance. The fourth sample was unable to be tested for resistance.


Although standard tests that measure antibody response to the HIV virus have become increasingly sensitive, cases of HIV are occasionally missed because individuals can have negative antibody tests during the early stages of infection. Also, a few people with long-term HIV infection may have false-negative antibody tests or may be chronic carriers who are clinically asymptomatic. The NAAT test helps avoid these problems because it amplifies the HIV viral RNA and detects viral genes instead of viral antibodies or antigens.

NAAT testing has been used in the U.S. as an investigational screening test for donated blood since 1999 and was approved for use in 2002 by the FDA. According to a study by the National Institutes of Health (New England J. of Medicine, Aug. 19, 2000), the test has helped prevent the transmission of approximately five HIV-1 infections and 56 hepatitis C virus infections each year since it was initiated for screening donor blood.

"Adding NAAT-based screening to standard HIV testing for can identify people with acute HIV infection earlier when they may be most infectious and at risk for spreading the virus. Then they can be referred for prevention and treatment services earlier before they develop clinical symptoms," Dr. Priddy says. "Early detection and intervention for patients with acute HIV infection may be key in stopping the spread of drug-resistant HIV. Our results show that urban STD and drug clinics and HIV testing sites should consider adopting HIV testing that includes NAAT."

Holly Korschun | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.emory.edu

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Win-win strategies for climate and food security
02.10.2017 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

nachricht The personality factor: How to foster the sharing of research data
06.09.2017 | ZBW – Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Terahertz spectroscopy goes nano

20.10.2017 | Information Technology

Strange but true: Turning a material upside down can sometimes make it softer

20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

NRL clarifies valley polarization for electronic and optoelectronic technologies

20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>