Adding a new HIV screening method, called nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), to standard HIV testing, researchers were able to uncover six percent more cases of HIV infection in urban STD and drug treatment clinics and HIV testing sites in Atlanta than with standard HIV antibody tests alone. The research will be presented at the 12th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Boston on February 25, 2005 by Frances Priddy, MD, assistant professor of medicine at Emory University School of Medicine.
Physician/researchers at Emory, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the Georgia Department of Human Resources used NAAT to screen clients receiving routing HIV testing and counseling at the urban clinics between October 2002 and January 2004. The research team used both standard antibody testing and NAAT testing to screen specimens from 2,202 people who had not previously tested positive for HIV. Sixty-six of the specimens were found to be HIV antibody positive and 2,135 were HIV antibody negative using standard tests. Using NAAT, however, four of the antibody-negative specimens tested positive for HIV viral genes.
On further examination, three of those four individuals were found to have definite acute HIV infections, although only one showed clinical symptoms. One of the four individuals had unclear results and may have had either acute or chronic HIV. In addition, three of the four individuals had HIV viruses with multidrug resistance. The fourth sample was unable to be tested for resistance.
Holly Korschun | EurekAlert!
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