Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Genetic amplification (NAAT) test detects HIV more effectively than standard tests in urban study

28.02.2005


Adding a new HIV screening method, called nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), to standard HIV testing, researchers were able to uncover six percent more cases of HIV infection in urban STD and drug treatment clinics and HIV testing sites in Atlanta than with standard HIV antibody tests alone. The research will be presented at the 12th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Boston on February 25, 2005 by Frances Priddy, MD, assistant professor of medicine at Emory University School of Medicine.



Physician/researchers at Emory, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the Georgia Department of Human Resources used NAAT to screen clients receiving routing HIV testing and counseling at the urban clinics between October 2002 and January 2004. The research team used both standard antibody testing and NAAT testing to screen specimens from 2,202 people who had not previously tested positive for HIV. Sixty-six of the specimens were found to be HIV antibody positive and 2,135 were HIV antibody negative using standard tests. Using NAAT, however, four of the antibody-negative specimens tested positive for HIV viral genes.

On further examination, three of those four individuals were found to have definite acute HIV infections, although only one showed clinical symptoms. One of the four individuals had unclear results and may have had either acute or chronic HIV. In addition, three of the four individuals had HIV viruses with multidrug resistance. The fourth sample was unable to be tested for resistance.


Although standard tests that measure antibody response to the HIV virus have become increasingly sensitive, cases of HIV are occasionally missed because individuals can have negative antibody tests during the early stages of infection. Also, a few people with long-term HIV infection may have false-negative antibody tests or may be chronic carriers who are clinically asymptomatic. The NAAT test helps avoid these problems because it amplifies the HIV viral RNA and detects viral genes instead of viral antibodies or antigens.

NAAT testing has been used in the U.S. as an investigational screening test for donated blood since 1999 and was approved for use in 2002 by the FDA. According to a study by the National Institutes of Health (New England J. of Medicine, Aug. 19, 2000), the test has helped prevent the transmission of approximately five HIV-1 infections and 56 hepatitis C virus infections each year since it was initiated for screening donor blood.

"Adding NAAT-based screening to standard HIV testing for can identify people with acute HIV infection earlier when they may be most infectious and at risk for spreading the virus. Then they can be referred for prevention and treatment services earlier before they develop clinical symptoms," Dr. Priddy says. "Early detection and intervention for patients with acute HIV infection may be key in stopping the spread of drug-resistant HIV. Our results show that urban STD and drug clinics and HIV testing sites should consider adopting HIV testing that includes NAAT."

Holly Korschun | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.emory.edu

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Amputees can learn to control a robotic arm with their minds
28.11.2017 | University of Chicago Medical Center

nachricht The importance of biodiversity in forests could increase due to climate change
17.11.2017 | Deutsches Zentrum für integrative Biodiversitätsforschung (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Towards data storage at the single molecule level

The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.

Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...

Im Focus: Successful Mechanical Testing of Nanowires

With innovative experiments, researchers at the Helmholtz-Zentrums Geesthacht and the Technical University Hamburg unravel why tiny metallic structures are extremely strong

Light-weight and simultaneously strong – porous metallic nanomaterials promise interesting applications as, for instance, for future aeroplanes with enhanced...

Im Focus: Virtual Reality for Bacteria

An interdisciplinary group of researchers interfaced individual bacteria with a computer to build a hybrid bio-digital circuit - Study published in Nature Communications

Scientists at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) have managed to control the behavior of individual bacteria by connecting them to a...

Im Focus: A space-time sensor for light-matter interactions

Physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (run jointly by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics) have developed an attosecond electron microscope that allows them to visualize the dispersion of light in time and space, and observe the motions of electrons in atoms.

The most basic of all physical interactions in nature is that between light and matter. This interaction takes place in attosecond times (i.e. billionths of a...

Im Focus: A transistor of graphene nanoribbons

Transistors based on carbon nanostructures: what sounds like a futuristic dream could be reality in just a few years' time. An international research team working with Empa has now succeeded in producing nanotransistors from graphene ribbons that are only a few atoms wide, as reported in the current issue of the trade journal "Nature Communications."

Graphene ribbons that are only a few atoms wide, so-called graphene nanoribbons, have special electrical properties that make them promising candidates for the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

AKL’18: The opportunities and challenges of digitalization in the laser industry

07.12.2017 | Event News

Blockchain is becoming more important in the energy market

05.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Making fuel out of thick air

08.12.2017 | Life Sciences

Rules for superconductivity mirrored in 'excitonic insulator'

08.12.2017 | Information Technology

Smartphone case offers blood glucose monitoring on the go

08.12.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>