A genetic analysis of viral RNA from 10 heterosexual couples, in which one partner has sexually transmitted HIV to the other, provides the first documentation of some differences in how the virus infects males and females. According to the Hopkins researchers who led the study, this initial research is essential to understanding why these differences occur and for future development of a vaccine or other preventive methods that could stop sexual transmission of HIV-1.
The couples in the study come from the Rakai Cohort, a Uganda-based population in a long-term study of HIV infection. The researchers tested each couples viral RNA to determine which variants, or kinds of HIV-1 strain, were present in each man and woman. Variants of HIV-1 can be distinguished by differences in the gene (gp160) for their protein envelope. The findings showed that only a subset of HIV-1 variants in the initially infected partner was transmitted to the newly infected partner, and the predominant variant in males was not the kind that infected their female partners. And, women infected by men had a greater number of variants than men infected by women.
The selection of HIV-1 during sexual transmission: differences in gp160 diversity in male-to-female versus female-to-male transmission. Oliver Laeyendecker, Jordyn Gamiel, James Shepard, Xianbin Li, David Serwadda, Nelson Sewankambo, Fred Wabwire-Mangen, Francine McCutchan, Jonathan Toma, Wei Huang, Ronald Gray, Maria Wawer, and Thomas Quinn
David March | EurekAlert!
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An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.
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Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.
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Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.
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Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.
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Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine
Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...
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