Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

For optimum results wine should not be stored in casks for more than 12 months

14.02.2005


In defending her PhD thesis, Teresa Garde Cerdán, Doctor in Chemical Sciences at the Public University of Navarre, stated that the maximum concentrations of compounds transferred to wine from wood is reached after 10 to 12 months of the wine being stored in wooden casks.



Moreover, it has been shown that, after a year, the concentration of these compounds, positive for the aroma of the wine, not only do they not increase but, in some cases, they begin to decrease. This is an important finding given that the current norms lay down a minimum period of twelve months for Reserva wines and 18 months for Gran Reserva ones.

The PhD thesis, defended at the Public University of Navarre under the title, "A Study of the Volatile Composition of Red Wines Aged in Different Kinds of Oak Casks".


Ageing of wine in old casks

This was to study the influence of various factors (age of the barrel, length of ageing period, composition of wine) in the extraction of volatile compounds of oak wood during the ageing process of wine.

The study also undertook a study of the evolution of fermentation esters during this ageing process. To this end, different grape varieties were used as well as monovariety red wines.

Four experiments

For the thesis, four chemical analysis experiments were carried out on different types of wine and casks. In the first, a red wine was analysed which had been casked for 12 months in French and American oak that had been in use for 5 years. Subsequently, the evolution of a red wine aged for 18 months in 2-year-old French oak casks. The other two experiments were carried out with a Merlot and a Cabernet Sauvignon – with different alcohol graduation and pH – which had been in one-year-old American oak casks for 17-18 months. Finally, a study of synthetic wines was undertaken.

In order to investigate the influence that the age of the barrel has on the volatile compounds transferred to the aged wine, French and American oak casks which had been in use for five years were used. From the results it was observed that the old casks hardly ceded any volatile compounds to the aged wine. These compounds are positive for the wine because they are what give the wine its aroma (bouquet). The current practice is to use barrels over many years as they are very costly but we have found that 5-year-old casks hardly provide any aromatic compounds.

From the data analysis it can also be concluded that, although all barrels ceded low amounts of volatile compounds, French oak, in general, provides a greater quantity than American. The wines aged in the latter show high concentrations of ethylphenols, substances undesirable for the aroma of the wine.

As regards the influence of the period of time of the ageing of the wine on the accumulation of volatile compounds, the optimum time for wine in the cask was investigated, drawing the conclusion that the maximum concentrations of compounds transferred to wine from wood is reached after 10 to 12 months of the wine being stored in barrels. Of the esters studied, only ethyl lactate increased its concentration during ageing.

It is significant that currently, the wine bodega business apply the norms of six months minimum for crianzas, one year for reservas and 18 months minimum in the wood for a Gran Reserva. These are the norms laid down by legislation but are not based on scientific study. In our investigation, precisely, we observed that, after 12 months in the barrel, from the perspective of the bouquet, wines do not change or the compounds which afford the aroma to the wine begin to decrease.

Finally, it was observed that alcohol content affects the accumulation of volatile compounds in wine more than pH does. That is, wine with a higher alcohol content extracts a greater quantity of volatile compounds from the wood than wine with a lower alcohol content. Nevertheless, the content is inversely related to the accumulation of ethylphenols. Esters evolve in a similar manner in both wines during the ageing process.

It should be taken into account that the alcoholic content depends on the quality of the grape and so is a variable that the wine itself has been provided with. But what can be done, in order to extract the volatile compounds from the wood, is to have the wine in the barrel for less time.

Irati Kortabitarte | alfa
Further information:
http://www.basqueresearch.com
http://www.elhuyar.com

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Do microplastics harbour additional risks by colonization with harmful bacteria?
05.04.2018 | Leibniz-Institut für Ostseeforschung Warnemünde

nachricht Rutgers-led innovation could spur faster, cheaper, nano-based manufacturing
14.02.2018 | Rutgers University

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: BAM@Hannover Messe: innovative 3D printing method for space flight

At the Hannover Messe 2018, the Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und-prüfung (BAM) will show how, in the future, astronauts could produce their own tools or spare parts in zero gravity using 3D printing. This will reduce, weight and transport costs for space missions. Visitors can experience the innovative additive manufacturing process live at the fair.

Powder-based additive manufacturing in zero gravity is the name of the project in which a component is produced by applying metallic powder layers and then...

Im Focus: Molecules Brilliantly Illuminated

Physicists at the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics, which is jointly run by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, have developed a high-power laser system that generates ultrashort pulses of light covering a large share of the mid-infrared spectrum. The researchers envisage a wide range of applications for the technology – in the early diagnosis of cancer, for instance.

Molecules are the building blocks of life. Like all other organisms, we are made of them. They control our biorhythm, and they can also reflect our state of...

Im Focus: Spider silk key to new bone-fixing composite

University of Connecticut researchers have created a biodegradable composite made of silk fibers that can be used to repair broken load-bearing bones without the complications sometimes presented by other materials.

Repairing major load-bearing bones such as those in the leg can be a long and uncomfortable process.

Im Focus: Writing and deleting magnets with lasers

Study published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces is the outcome of an international effort that included teams from Dresden and Berlin in Germany, and the US.

Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) together with colleagues from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Virginia...

Im Focus: Gamma-ray flashes from plasma filaments

Novel highly efficient and brilliant gamma-ray source: Based on model calculations, physicists of the Max PIanck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg propose a novel method for an efficient high-brilliance gamma-ray source. A giant collimated gamma-ray pulse is generated from the interaction of a dense ultra-relativistic electron beam with a thin solid conductor. Energetic gamma-rays are copiously produced as the electron beam splits into filaments while propagating across the conductor. The resulting gamma-ray energy and flux enable novel experiments in nuclear and fundamental physics.

The typical wavelength of light interacting with an object of the microcosm scales with the size of this object. For atoms, this ranges from visible light to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

IWOLIA: A conference bringing together German Industrie 4.0 and French Industrie du Futur

09.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quantum Technology for Advanced Imaging – QUILT

24.04.2018 | Information Technology

AWI researchers measure a record concentration of microplastic in arctic sea ice

24.04.2018 | Earth Sciences

Complete skin regeneration system of fish unraveled

24.04.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>