Results illuminate evolutionary interaction between virus and human immune system
An international research team has identified immune-system genes that appear to play a key role in the body’s defense against HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. The findings may lead to ways of circumventing the virus’s ability to avoid vaccines by rapid mutation. The study in the Dec. 9 issue of Nature also describes how HIV infection is driving human evolution, since individuals with protective versions of the identified genes are more likely to survive and pass those genes along to children. Including researchers from the University of Oxford and the University of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa, the investigation is a result of a program established by the Partners AIDS Research Center at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH).
"This study identifies the genetic battleground where the struggle between HIV and the human immune response occurs," says Philip Goulder, MD, PhD, of the Partners AIDS Research Center at MGH, the study’s principal investigator. "The findings will help in understanding precisely how the immune system can succeed or fail against HIV, a prerequisite for a rational approach towards design of an HIV vaccine." Goulder also has an appointment at the Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research at Oxford.
Sue McGreevey | EurekAlert!
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Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.
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Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.
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An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.
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Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.
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