Results illuminate evolutionary interaction between virus and human immune system
An international research team has identified immune-system genes that appear to play a key role in the body’s defense against HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. The findings may lead to ways of circumventing the virus’s ability to avoid vaccines by rapid mutation. The study in the Dec. 9 issue of Nature also describes how HIV infection is driving human evolution, since individuals with protective versions of the identified genes are more likely to survive and pass those genes along to children. Including researchers from the University of Oxford and the University of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa, the investigation is a result of a program established by the Partners AIDS Research Center at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH).
"This study identifies the genetic battleground where the struggle between HIV and the human immune response occurs," says Philip Goulder, MD, PhD, of the Partners AIDS Research Center at MGH, the study’s principal investigator. "The findings will help in understanding precisely how the immune system can succeed or fail against HIV, a prerequisite for a rational approach towards design of an HIV vaccine." Goulder also has an appointment at the Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research at Oxford.
Sue McGreevey | EurekAlert!
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Cardiovascular tissue engineering aims to treat heart disease with prostheses that grow and regenerate. Now, researchers from the University of Zurich, the Technical University Eindhoven and the Charité Berlin have successfully implanted regenerative heart valves, designed with the aid of computer simulations, into sheep for the first time.
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A team of scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg investigated optically-induced superconductivity in the alkali-doped fulleride K3C60under high external pressures. This study allowed, on one hand, to uniquely assess the nature of the transient state as a superconducting phase. In addition, it unveiled the possibility to induce superconductivity in K3C60 at temperatures far above the -170 degrees Celsius hypothesized previously, and rather all the way to room temperature. The paper by Cantaluppi et al has been published in Nature Physics.
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