Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Hormone replacement therapy should start early

14.07.2004


Don’t categorically reject hormone replacement therapy (HRT) just yet: When women begin HRT before age 60, their risk of death is 39 percent less than women not on hormones, according to a new survey.



The findings are based on a Cornell University-Stanford University meta-analysis (a study of other previously published studies), which pooled the results of 30 clinical trials of HRT with almost 27,000 women.

"The results of our analysis indicate that the benefits of HRT outweigh the risks in women who have recently entered menopause," says Edwin E. Salpeter, who did the statistical analyses for the study. Salpeter is a professor of physics emeritus at Cornell and the 1997 Crafoord Prize laureate who has turned his interest to medical issues in recent years.


The first author of the study, which is published in the July issue of the Journal of General Internal Medicine (Vol. 19:7, 2004), is his daughter, Shelley R. Salpeter, M.D., a clinical professor of medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine and a physician at Santa Clara Valley Medical Center in San Jose, Calif.

The new findings appear contrary to two large, well-publicized studies, the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study and the Women’s Health Initiative, which found no difference in mortality rates for those taking HRT or a placebo. Women taking HRT, these two studies found, had increases in breast cancer, stroke, heart attacks and pulmonary embolism and decreases in colon cancer, hip fractures and diabetes mellitus. The conclusion from these trials was that the risks of HRT outweighed the benefits in these patients. However, these findings were based on samples of women whose mean age was 65 years at the start of the trial.

However, an earlier survey, the Nurses’ Health Study, says Shelley Salpeter, "was a large prospective study that found that women who started treatment within two years of menopause had a total mortality risk of 0.63 that of nonusers. Our findings are consistent with this result and suggest that HRT may help prevent and perhaps even halt the progression of cardiovascular disease when started in women in early postmenopause."

She notes, however, that the accumulated evidence suggests that once heart disease has already developed, HRT has no effect in reversing the process. In fact, heart attacks could even be increased in this older age group due to an increased risk for blood clots.

"The beneficial effects of HRT in younger postmenopausal women appear to be due to HRT’s ability to increase high-density lipoproteins ("good" fats) and reduce low-density lipoproteins ("bad" fats), glucose, weight, insulin levels, the incidence of new-onset diabetes and a handful of other risk factors for heart diseases," says Shelley Salpeter.

The Salpeters point out that the meta-analysis found no change in breast cancer deaths or total cancer deaths in women of all ages on HRT compared with those not on it, and it also showed a significant decrease in the risk of deaths from causes other than cancer or cardiovascular events, perhaps due to HRT’s other benefits. These other benefits include a 35 percent reduction in hip fracture and new-onset diabetes mellitus and a 60 percent reduction in recurrent urinary tract infections (which can lead to fatal sepsis). The authors conclude that each woman should make the decision regarding hormone replacement on an individual basis, taking into consideration her age, the degree of bothersome postmenopausal symptoms and her underlying health-risk factors.

The other co-authors of the study are Judith M.E. Walsh, M.D., of the University of California-San Francisco; and Elizabeth Greyber, M.D., and Thomas M. Ormiston, M.D., both of the Santa Clara Valley Medical Center. The study was funded, in part, by the Santa Clara Valley Medical Center and the University of California-San Francisco.

Susan S. Lang | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.cornell.edu

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Do microplastics harbour additional risks by colonization with harmful bacteria?
05.04.2018 | Leibniz-Institut für Ostseeforschung Warnemünde

nachricht Rutgers-led innovation could spur faster, cheaper, nano-based manufacturing
14.02.2018 | Rutgers University

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Writing and deleting magnets with lasers

Study published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces is the outcome of an international effort that included teams from Dresden and Berlin in Germany, and the US.

Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) together with colleagues from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Virginia...

Im Focus: Gamma-ray flashes from plasma filaments

Novel highly efficient and brilliant gamma-ray source: Based on model calculations, physicists of the Max PIanck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg propose a novel method for an efficient high-brilliance gamma-ray source. A giant collimated gamma-ray pulse is generated from the interaction of a dense ultra-relativistic electron beam with a thin solid conductor. Energetic gamma-rays are copiously produced as the electron beam splits into filaments while propagating across the conductor. The resulting gamma-ray energy and flux enable novel experiments in nuclear and fundamental physics.

The typical wavelength of light interacting with an object of the microcosm scales with the size of this object. For atoms, this ranges from visible light to...

Im Focus: Basel researchers succeed in cultivating cartilage from stem cells

Stable joint cartilage can be produced from adult stem cells originating from bone marrow. This is made possible by inducing specific molecular processes occurring during embryonic cartilage formation, as researchers from the University and University Hospital of Basel report in the scientific journal PNAS.

Certain mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from the bone marrow of adults are considered extremely promising for skeletal tissue regeneration. These adult stem...

Im Focus: Like a wedge in a hinge

Researchers lay groundwork to tailor drugs for new targets in cancer therapy

In the fight against cancer, scientists are developing new drugs to hit tumor cells at so far unused weak points. Such a “sore spot” is the protein complex...

Im Focus: The Future of Ultrafast Solid-State Physics

In an article that appears in the journal “Review of Modern Physics”, researchers at the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (LAP) assess the current state of the field of ultrafast physics and consider its implications for future technologies.

Physicists can now control light in both time and space with hitherto unimagined precision. This is particularly true for the ability to generate ultrashort...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

IWOLIA: A conference bringing together German Industrie 4.0 and French Industrie du Futur

09.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Diamond-like carbon is formed differently to what was believed -- machine learning enables development of new model

19.04.2018 | Materials Sciences

Electromagnetic wizardry: Wireless power transfer enhanced by backward signal

19.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Ultrafast electron oscillation and dephasing monitored by attosecond light source

19.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>