Genetic test sought to identify patients most likely to respond
A new anti-cancer agent, gefinitib (Iressa), recently received FDA approval for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after a series of clinical trials and an expanded access program led by researchers at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC). The compound is designed to target and block the activity of the tyrosine kinase enzyme that signals the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), telling the cancer cells to grow, divide, and spread. Gefinitib shrunk tumors in only ten percent of the NSCLC patients, although the enzyme is believed to be present and activated in most NSCLC patients. The results raised the questions - why wasnt the drug effective in more patients and could physicians predict who would respond to the drug?
The MSKCC researchers took a retrospective review of the characteristics of their patients in the three trials to analyze the features that were associated with sensitivity to the drug. They found that gefitinib worked best in individuals who had never smoked, had a type of non-small cell lung cancer called bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma, and were female. Their results, published in the March 15 issue of the Journal of Clinical Oncology, may provide clues to the mechanisms involved in both the drug response and in possible tobacco-related genetic changes in lung cancer. This information could help physicians select those patients who will most benefit from the drug and also provide information that could lead to development of a molecular screen to grade expression and over-expression of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, much like one used to measure HER2 neu for breast cancer patients.
Joanne Nicholas | EurekAlert!
Europe’s Demographic Future. Where the Regions Are Heading after a Decade of Crises
10.08.2017 | Berlin-Institut für Bevölkerung und Entwicklung
Scientists reveal source of human heartbeat in 3-D
07.08.2017 | University of Manchester
Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.
As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...
Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.
Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...
For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.
While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...
An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.
The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...
A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...
16.08.2017 | Event News
04.08.2017 | Event News
26.07.2017 | Event News
17.08.2017 | Earth Sciences
17.08.2017 | Life Sciences
17.08.2017 | Materials Sciences