Although women normally have androgens – so-called "male" hormones – circulating in their bloodstreams, excessive levels can cause a variety of symptoms including acne, weight gain, excessive hair growth (hirsutism), menstrual dysfunction, and infertility.
Hirsutism – the growth of coarse hair in patterns similar to those of men – has long been considered the key marker for androgen excess. Physicians have had difficulty providing a firm diagnosis and identifying underlying causes, however, because a number of disorders can cause hirsutism, not all women with hirsutism have evidence of androgen excess, and not all patients who have androgen excess disorders suffer from hirsutism. Determining the most effective treatment has been challenging, too. While most women have been treated with single-agent hormone therapy, a combination approach has been suggested as a better alternative, but comparison studies have been conducted in only small samples of patients.
Now a long-term study – perhaps the largest of its kind to date – identifies the most common causes of androgen excess in women and compares therapeutic approaches, showing that combination hormonal therapy can improve most symptoms. Researchers at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and the University of Alabama at Birmingham report their findings in the February issue of the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism in an "Extensive Personal Experience" article.
Sandra Van | Van Communications
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A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
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The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
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The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...
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