Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Moderate-Fat Diet is Kinder to Heart than Low-Fat Diet, Study by UB Researcher Shows

02.02.2004


Overweight individuals who adopt a low-fat diet in hopes of lessening their risk of heart disease and diabetes may be venturing down the wrong path, results of a new study headed by a nutritional researcher at the University at Buffalo have shown.



The study, published in the current (February) issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, showed that a moderate-fat diet might be a better choice. Christine L. Pelkman, Ph.D., assistant professor of nutrition in the UB School of Public Health and Health Professions, is first author on the study.

The dietary intervention trial involved two groups of overweight participants assigned to eat meals containing the same number of calories, but different percentages fat. The groups were monitored so that both lost the same amount of weight. After six weeks, those on the moderate-fat diet had a healthier heart profile than those on the low-fat diet.


Participants who consumed a diet containing 33 percent fat (moderate fat) reduced their cardiovascular risk by 14 percent, based on their lipid profiles, findings showed. Those consuming a diet containing 18 percent fat (low fat) reduced their lipid-based risk by nine percent.

Moreover, after a four-week weight maintenance phase, moderate-fat dieters maintained their levels of beneficial cholesterol (HDL), improved the ratio of HDL to total and non-HDL cholesterol and lowered the concentration of triglycerides, also harmful to heart health.

Low-fat dieters experienced an initial drop in triglycerides, but at the end of the study, these fats had rebounded, HDL levels were lower and the ratio of HDL to total and non-HDL cholesterol didn’t change.

"We don’t know very much about the effects of a higher-fat versus a lower-fat, weight-loss diet on the blood lipid profile in overweight adults," said Pelkman. "The emphasis has been on low-fat diets for both weight loss and for reducing the risk of heart disease.

"We know that losing weight improves the lipid profile, but that doesn’t tell us if weight loss alone or the composition of the diet is responsible. We wanted to take weight loss out of the equation and see if there is an effect of diet composition during weight loss." Pelkman conducted the research while a postdoctoral researcher at Penn State.

The study group consisted of 53 overweight or obese men and women between the ages of 20 and 67 who were assigned randomly to either the low- or moderate-fat diet. All meals were provided, and weight loss was kept constant at an average of 2.4 to 2.7 pounds a week. Both diets met current saturated fat and cholesterol recommendations.

Carbohydrates replaced the calories from saturated fats in the low-fat diet, while monounsaturated fats replaced saturated fats in the moderate-fat diet. Chemical analysis of the diets validated the composition of the two diets.

During the weight-loss period, both groups lowered their total and LDL cholesterol, but the low-fat group also experienced a 12 percent drop in HDL cholesterol. Triglycerides dropped in both groups, as well.

However, during the weight-maintenance phase, there was a reversal of the weight-loss induced drop in triglycerides and a reduction in HDL cholesterol compared to baseline in the low-fat group, but not in the moderate-fat group.

"These results show that although weight loss does improve the lipid profile, a moderate-fat, weight-loss diet reduces risk more than a low-fat, weight-loss diet, so dieters don’t need to cut out all the fat to improve their risk profile," Pelkman said. "Monounsaturated fats can be a healthy part of a weight-loss diet."

Additional researchers on the study were Valerie K. Fishell, Deborah Maddox, and Penny M. Kris-Etherton, Ph.D., all of Penn State; Thomas A. Pearson, M.D., MPH, Ph.D., from the University of Rochester; and David T. Mauger, Ph.D., from the Penn State College of Medicine.

The research was supported in part by the Peanut Institute.

Lois Baker | University at Buffalo
Further information:
http://www.buffalo.edu/news/fast-execute.cgi/article-page.html?article=65630009

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Europe’s Demographic Future. Where the Regions Are Heading after a Decade of Crises
10.08.2017 | Berlin-Institut für Bevölkerung und Entwicklung

nachricht Scientists reveal source of human heartbeat in 3-D
07.08.2017 | University of Manchester

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A Map of the Cell’s Power Station

18.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Engineering team images tiny quasicrystals as they form

18.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Researchers printed graphene-like materials with inkjet

18.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>