Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Moderate-Fat Diet is Kinder to Heart than Low-Fat Diet, Study by UB Researcher Shows

02.02.2004


Overweight individuals who adopt a low-fat diet in hopes of lessening their risk of heart disease and diabetes may be venturing down the wrong path, results of a new study headed by a nutritional researcher at the University at Buffalo have shown.



The study, published in the current (February) issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, showed that a moderate-fat diet might be a better choice. Christine L. Pelkman, Ph.D., assistant professor of nutrition in the UB School of Public Health and Health Professions, is first author on the study.

The dietary intervention trial involved two groups of overweight participants assigned to eat meals containing the same number of calories, but different percentages fat. The groups were monitored so that both lost the same amount of weight. After six weeks, those on the moderate-fat diet had a healthier heart profile than those on the low-fat diet.


Participants who consumed a diet containing 33 percent fat (moderate fat) reduced their cardiovascular risk by 14 percent, based on their lipid profiles, findings showed. Those consuming a diet containing 18 percent fat (low fat) reduced their lipid-based risk by nine percent.

Moreover, after a four-week weight maintenance phase, moderate-fat dieters maintained their levels of beneficial cholesterol (HDL), improved the ratio of HDL to total and non-HDL cholesterol and lowered the concentration of triglycerides, also harmful to heart health.

Low-fat dieters experienced an initial drop in triglycerides, but at the end of the study, these fats had rebounded, HDL levels were lower and the ratio of HDL to total and non-HDL cholesterol didn’t change.

"We don’t know very much about the effects of a higher-fat versus a lower-fat, weight-loss diet on the blood lipid profile in overweight adults," said Pelkman. "The emphasis has been on low-fat diets for both weight loss and for reducing the risk of heart disease.

"We know that losing weight improves the lipid profile, but that doesn’t tell us if weight loss alone or the composition of the diet is responsible. We wanted to take weight loss out of the equation and see if there is an effect of diet composition during weight loss." Pelkman conducted the research while a postdoctoral researcher at Penn State.

The study group consisted of 53 overweight or obese men and women between the ages of 20 and 67 who were assigned randomly to either the low- or moderate-fat diet. All meals were provided, and weight loss was kept constant at an average of 2.4 to 2.7 pounds a week. Both diets met current saturated fat and cholesterol recommendations.

Carbohydrates replaced the calories from saturated fats in the low-fat diet, while monounsaturated fats replaced saturated fats in the moderate-fat diet. Chemical analysis of the diets validated the composition of the two diets.

During the weight-loss period, both groups lowered their total and LDL cholesterol, but the low-fat group also experienced a 12 percent drop in HDL cholesterol. Triglycerides dropped in both groups, as well.

However, during the weight-maintenance phase, there was a reversal of the weight-loss induced drop in triglycerides and a reduction in HDL cholesterol compared to baseline in the low-fat group, but not in the moderate-fat group.

"These results show that although weight loss does improve the lipid profile, a moderate-fat, weight-loss diet reduces risk more than a low-fat, weight-loss diet, so dieters don’t need to cut out all the fat to improve their risk profile," Pelkman said. "Monounsaturated fats can be a healthy part of a weight-loss diet."

Additional researchers on the study were Valerie K. Fishell, Deborah Maddox, and Penny M. Kris-Etherton, Ph.D., all of Penn State; Thomas A. Pearson, M.D., MPH, Ph.D., from the University of Rochester; and David T. Mauger, Ph.D., from the Penn State College of Medicine.

The research was supported in part by the Peanut Institute.

Lois Baker | University at Buffalo
Further information:
http://www.buffalo.edu/news/fast-execute.cgi/article-page.html?article=65630009

More articles from Studies and Analyses:

nachricht Drone vs. truck deliveries: Which create less carbon pollution?
31.05.2017 | University of Washington

nachricht New study: How does Europe become a leading player for software and IT services?
03.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI)

All articles from Studies and Analyses >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Equipping form with function

23.06.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>